The Cultural History and New Cause of the Grand Canal: A Review on the Making of the Master Protection Plan and Applying for the World Heritage Status
ZHU Guangya(School of Architecture, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210096)
Abstract:The Grand Canal is the longest artificial waterway stretching from China's north to south.The work to protect the Grand Canal and apply for its World Heritage status began in earnest in 2008 when an alliance of the cities along the canal was officially formed. Commissioned by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of China, Chinese Academy of Cultural Heritage and Southeast University co-worked on the master plan for the protection work.An experts committee specialized in the protection and application was also founded.A panel composed of the allied cities was set in September 2012 in Yangzhou to discuss and finalize the master plan for the protection.The final application is to be submitted to the UNESCO in 2013.The State Administration of Cultural Heritage has been clear from the beginning that the campaign to apply for the World Heritage status for the Grand Canal is only a way to promote the protection for it,the core of which is to disclose and present the outstanding universal value and Chinese cultural characteristics conveyed by the canal and to enable the continuity and sustainability of this heritage.The application process is more like an exam for Chinese academic and administrative fields to pass.
Key words:the Grand Canal;heritage;protection;master plan;application for the World Heritage status
Methods Determine the Result:Situated Learning and Museum Education For Children
GUO Meixia(The Palace Museum, Beijing, 100009)
Abstract:Museum education targets at both adults and children. The children-focused part is more dependent on the professionalism of educators due to the special characteristics of children in learning.The choice of teaching methods and the creation of learning situations play an essential role in children's learning activities that focus more on interest and exploration rather than receiving knowledge.Based on her years of experience in museum education,the author argues that museum educators should make good use of educational resources,create appropriate learning environments and situations,and apply different approaches to stimulate children's interest to learn,so as to achieve better educational results.
Key words:museum;children education;creating learning situations
A Review on the Excavations on Weidun Site over the Past Forty Years
CHEN Li-hua PENG Hui(Changzhou Museum, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213022)
Abstract:Weidun is one of the oldest prehistorical sites of Majiabang Culture discovered in the Northwestern part of Taihu area.It contains rich cultural meanings and enjoys distinct cultural features.Five excavations have been conducted since 1972,which unearthed a batch of cultural relics with strong local characteristics.These discoveries provide important evidence for the defining and further study of Majiabang Culture.As a typical marginal heritage site to the northwest of the Taihu,Weidun,together with the other new archaeological discoveries in this area,provides new thoughts for the study of the cultural transformation around the Taihu area.
Key words:Weidun Site;significance of excavations;burials;marginal heritage sites
A Brief Excavation Report of Tomb M15 and Tomb M54 at Banjing Cemetery in Fengyang, Anhui
Anhui Provincial Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology; Fengyang Administration of Cultural Relics
Abstract:During 2009-2010,Anhui Provincial Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out an archaeological excavation on the Banjing cemetery in Fengyang.Total 56 tombs were uncovered,among which,M15 and M54,due to their large scales,special forms,and rich unearthed objects,provide significant materials for the research of the burial custom in this region as well as the greater area around the Yangtze River and Huaihe River in the Han Dynasty.
Key words:Fengyang county;Banjing cemetery;Han tombs
A Brief Excavation Report of the Ming-Qing Brick Dam and Warf of the Li Canal in Huai’an, Jiangsu Province
Museum of Huai’an; Chuzhou Museum
Abstract:A dam section and wharf,both are of brick structure,dated to the Ming-Qing time were uncovered in the side of the Li Canal in Chuzhou,Huai'an in 2011.The dam is based with massive wooden spiles.Fascine revetment remains and multi-rowed wooden spiles were found surrounding the dam.Pottery wares,coins and other daily utensils as well as a large number of boat utensils and boat spikes were unearthed from the aqueduct.The excavation provided important new materials for the research of the Grand Canal and will also benefit the application of the canal's World Heritage status.
Key words:the Li Canal;brick dam;wharf
A Strategic Study on the Present Situation and Problems and the Protection and Utilization of the Hydraulic Heritage in Jiangsu Province
1. XIE You-ning 2. DOU Hui-ling 3. SHENG Zhi-wei（1. Information Research Institute of Hohai University; 2. School of Business of Hohai University;3.Jiangsu Provincial Administration of Cultural Heritage)
Abstract:The third national survey on cultural relics conducted in 2011 shows that in Jiangsu Province,hydraulic heritage takes an about 15% account.Hydraulic heritage is a collection of hydraulic engineering structures and industrial heritage.Hydraulic engineering works reflects the wisdom and culture of human beings handling with water.Based on the data of six categorizes (dams and aqueducts,bridges and docks,ancient sites of bridges and piers,water conservancy facilities,ancient sites of water conservancy facilities,underwater heritage sites),this article analyses the present situation and problems facing the hydraulic heritage of Jiangsu Province.While bridges and piers are easily seen in southern Jiangsu,water conservancy facilities are more distributed in southern Jiangsu,which marks an important characteristic of Jiangsu's hydraulic heritage in distribution.SWOT Matrix is an analytical method of strategic management,with which,this article presents seven strategies to the protection andutilization of hydraulic heritage.
Key words:hydraulic heritage;industrial heritage;cultural heritage;heritage protection
A Brief Excavation Report on the Site Tianfeiof Dan in Huai’an, Jiangsu Province
Museum of Huai’an
Abstract:Located at Matou village, Huai'an, Jiangsu Province,the Tianfei Dam is a hydraulic heritage site related to the Grand Canal.The excavation on this site,which commenced in September 2011,uncovered two different dam sections.One is of brick structure and dated to the Ming Dynasty,which is the first discovery of this kind,and the other is a stone structure from the Qing Dynasty.Tianfei Dam is of significant sense to the study of the historical transformation and location of the Grand Canal as well as the conjunction of the Yellow River and Huai River.
Key words:the Grand Canal;Tianfei Dam heritage site;stone dam; brick dam
A Disscussion on Huai'an's Water Resource Facilities and Management in the Ming-Qing Period:The Shunhuang Dam as A Case
YIN Zhen-xing（Huai-Shu New River Management Office, Huai’an, Jiangsu, 223005）
Abstract:Qingkou, located in Huai’an, Jiangsu Province, is the place where the Yellow River, the Huai River, and the Grand Canal meet. It was a strategic site of water transportation in ancient China. The Ming-Qing period witnessed the most efforts being put into the management of the water resource at this area, which resulted in a good number of engineering facilities for water management. The major facilities including those for managing the Yellow River, the Huai River and the Grand Canal as well as those for facilitating water transportation or preventing flood constitute a comprehensive system of water resource in Qingkou. To conduct studies on Qingkou’s water management history may assert a great driving force for the application of the Grand Canal’s World Heritage status.
Key words:the Grand Canal;Qingkou;water resource facilities;Shunhuang Dam
An Appreciation for Clay:Discussing the Rise of the Huishan Clay Figurines
LI Ping(Library and Information Centre, Nanjing Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016)
Abstract: To craft human or animal figurines out of clay is one of the oldest forms of folk art.The clay figurines of Huishan,Wuxi,had its prosperous time in history and have been regarded as one of Wuxi's Three Specialities.The Huishan clay figurines embody two elements:the character Afu,a cultural element,and the represented play theme,an artistic element.The rise of Huishan clay figurines was closely related to the historical and cultural background of Wuxi.
Key words: clay; Huishan clay figurines; rise
A Study of the Ce, Bao, and Zhi in Imperial Tombs
LIU Yi(Department of Cultural Administvator and Museology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071)
Abstract:Shice,aice, shibao and zhi are all important objects placed in the imperial tombs indicating the identities of the owners.Their forms,contents and usage had been changing from the Han.The use of ce and bao was inherited due to ritual consideration.Zhi or epitaph was mainly used for people who were not emperors or empresses.
Key words:shice; aice;shibao;epitaph
A Brief Excavation Report on the Southern Dynasties Tombs of M10, M12,and M93 on Mount Xiaoheng in Yuhang,Zhejiang
Hangzhou Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Yuhang Museum
Abstract:From June to December in 2011,Hangzhou Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Yuhang Museum conducted a salvage excavation on the tombs on Mount Xiaoheng located at Chenjiamuqiao Village,Yuhang,Hangzhou,from which,121 tombs and over 300 burial objects dating back to the Eastern Jin or Southern Dynasties were unearthed.Among the 121 tombs,21 were decorated with pictorial bricks.The pictorial bricks in Tomb M10,M12,and M93 were particularly well preserved,representing the features of their kind.The findings of this excavation carry great academic value as they provide new data for the research of the art history in the Six Dynasties and Zhejiang's burial custom and relationship with the then capital (Jiankang) in the Southern Dynasties.
Key words:Mount Xiaoheng in Yuhang;Southern Dynasties;the pictorial-brick tomb
Cultural Heritage Conservation in the Perspective of Management
WANG Gao-feng(Department of History of Science-and-Technology and Archaeometry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026)
Abstract:Cultural heritage management is a focus of cultural heritage studies in the recent years.With cultural heritage being regarded as an important part of cultural economies,its management becomes essential.Cultural heritage management promotes the communication and interaction between materialized heritage and people and society,which include not only economic benefits,but also the appreciation and inheritance of cultural values. The United States has built a fairly complete protection scheme that pays a lot of attention on publicizing the importance of cultural heritage and developing its cultural values,which may provide inspirations and references to the practices in China.
Key words:cultural heritage; conservation;management
Chinese Museums: Education Is to Be Focused as Well as Exhibitions
ZHENG Yi LU Jian-song(Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433)
Abstract:Education is the primary task of museums.In many developed countries,museums are taken as an important source and platform to perform education.With multiple approaches and colorful programs,museum education in these countries achieves fruitful results.To fully realize their educational functions,museums in China need to change the current situation,in which exhibitionary practice is the only focus of work and education is ignored,and to develop new programs or approaches to improve their educational practices,so as to serve the public better.
Key words:museums;education; exhibitions;foreign experiences
Culture of the Stone City:In Memorial of the 1800-Year Anniversary of the Stone City of Nanjing(Ⅰ)
LIANG Bai-quan(Nanjing Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016)
Abstract:Since 1998,the Research Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage of Nanjing University and the Archaeology Department of Nanjing Municipal Museum have conducted test excavations at the Stone City site on Mount Qingliang in Nanjing.The excavations unearthed some wall remains as well as other relics from the Six Dynasties time.The establishment of the Stone City was dated to 1800 years ago,from when,it is believed that Nanjing began its historical journey as a city.The culture of the Stone City showed different features with the Tang and Five Dynasties as a dividing line.The former period witnessed more military heroes while the latter was more marked by scholars and artists.The history of the city has been repeatedly represented in literary and artistic works of different times,which sets a great reference for the present Nanjing in particular concern with its urban construction and social development.
Key words:the culture of the Stone City;Nanjing;the establishment of the Stone City;1800 years old
The Realization of the Educational Potentials of Museums: More Efforts to Put
LIU Wen-tao(Nanjing Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016)
Abstract:Museums are born with an educational role.The most important goal of museums is to educate,which enables the realization of their public value.As a supplementary channel to school education,museums are important social educational institutions that cannot be substituted.The educational role of museums in China is partly challenged due to their limitations in exhibitions and educational programs development,educational profession,and audience research.There is a long way to go before the full realization of the educational potentials of museums.
Key words:museums;education;social development
The Evolution and Hierarchy of Epitaphs in the Jin Dynasty
WANG Jia-yue(Archaeological Department of Peking University, Beijing, 100871)
Abstract:Epitaph as an important funerary object first appeared in the Jin Dynasty and gradually developed from then on.Typological analyses on the epitaph forms of this period show that the earliest epitaphs originated from inscribed tombstones but formed their own styles in the Eastern Jin.Available literatures have also disclosed the social institutions connoted by these epitaph forms.It is concluded that epitaphs carried hierarchical meanings when they were born in the Western Jin time.They lost their importance in the society and become ordinary burial objects in the Eastern Jin due to the rival of the use of tombstones at the time,which also caused their change in forms.
Key words:epitaph;the Jin Dynasty;form; hierarchy;change