An Inspiration from Michel Foucault: Cultural Heritage in the Perspective of Space
(Department of Sociology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871)
Abstract: By connecting the concepts of space, knowledge and power, Michel Foucault creatively realized the integration of spatial philosophy and spatial politics. Embodying a facet of spatial politics, culture heritage has both the temporal and spatial dimensions. To introduce Foucaultian spatial theories into heritage studies may provide approaches to the interpretation and rethinking of the power relationships concealed in the concept formation and practices of culture heritage and the related issues including the concept of heritage sites and the tendency toward spatialization of heritage identification and its effects on the integration of geological and political territories, the development opportunities brought by heritage industries to the local communities, the heterotopian allusions in practices such as ecomuseums, as well as the potential contributions of eco-cultural preservation zones to a more integrated and active stage of cultural heritage protection.
Key words: Michel Foucault; cultural heritage; space; power; heterotopia
Public Cultural Services Scheme and the Free Admission of Museums
SONG Xin-chao（State Administration of Cultural Heritage of China，Beijing，100020）
Abstract: Museums are non-profit organizations open to the public，which makes them an important part of the public scheme of cultural services. Since the launch of the free admission policy，museums in China have achieved great improvement in a range of aspects including infrastructures，exhibitions and service minds. The evaluating and grading system promotes their levels in operation and management. Facing the existing challenges，museums today shall strive themselves toward a higher level by insisting on their non-profit nature，furthering the free-admission process，improving the quality of exhibitions， broadening their cultural influence，developing successful merchandises，enriching the talents base and enhancing the systemic and institutional reforms，and become a driving force for the society’s development in harmony.
Key words: museums；public cultural service scheme；free admission；evaluating and grading
Brief Excavation Report of the Burial Mound D19 at Wugong Mountain in Xiaoshan, Hangzhou
Xiaoshan Working Station of Hangzhou Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
Abstract: From March 2011 to June 2012, the Xiaoshan working station of Hangzhou Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology conducted a salvage archaeological excavation on the burial mounds at Wugong Mountain in Xiaoshan, Hangzhou. D19 is one of the biggest mounds amongst the unearthed composed of the tumulus, door, passage, chamber, retaining wall, and ramp. The objects inside the mound were found as of two layers. Their positions and ages suggest that they were from three different tombs. This excavation provides new data for the study of the regional distribution, construction, and usage of stone-chambered burial mounds as well as the funeral customs in Baiyue area.
Key words: Wugong Mountain; stone-chambered burial mound; Shang and Zhou
Studies on Bone Pipes Excavated at the Hemudu Site
(Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310014)
Abstract: Over 100 holed pipes made from limb bones of birds were unearthed at the Hemudu site of ZheJiang through the two archaeological excavations conducted in 1973 and 1977. The bone pipes were believed to be musical instruments of whistles or flutes by some musicians, which has been generally accepted in the academic circle and the society for almost one decade. The latest microwear analyses on these pipes, however, suggest that they may not be musical instruments, but primitive tools for textile weaving.
Key words: Hemudu Site; bone pipes with holes; microwear analysis; primitive textile weaving
Discourse Analysis and the Interpretation of Indigenous Meanings of Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of the Wenchang Palace
HOU Song WU Zong-jie
(Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058)
Abstract:With the advent of critical heritage studies,cross-cultural rethinking and indigenous-meaning reconstruction become important topics in the heritage field, toward which discourse analysis may play a crucial role as it explores the indigenous meanings of historical texts. With the case of “Wenchang Palace”, which was recorded in the three history books of Quzhou, Zhejiang Province, this article discusses the indigenous view of heritage, historical ways of thinking, and approaches of meaning generating in China by analyzing the materiality, cultural roots and contemporary value of heritage. The key is to consider cultural heritage in discourse of indigenous traditions. To learn from other cultures does not mean to give up the indigenous views. Confronting the globalized heritage boom, cross-cultural dialogues are the solution.
Key words: cultural heritage; discourse analysis; indigenous meanings; Wenchang Palace
Brief Excavation Report of the Mound D2 at the Emaogang Site in Jurong, Jiangsu Province
Zhenjiang Museum; Jurong Museum
Abstract: From August to October 2011, Zhenjing Museum led an archaeological excavation on a well-preserved burial mound D2 at the Emaogang site in Jurong, Jiangsu Province. Twenty-two tombs dating to the Zhou time, four groups of utensils, and remains of sintered soil and other objects covering the period from the late Western Zhou to the middle of Spring and Autumn were unearthed. This excavation provides new materials and new perspectives to the digging and research of burial mounds in Jiangnan area.
Key words: Emaogang in Jurong; burial mounds; the Zhou Dynasty
Calligraphic Reforms in the Cultural Transition of the Late Ming
(Nanjing Institute of Visual Arts, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211215)
Abstract: With the influence of the social economic and cultural development at the time, calligraphers in late Ming including Xu Wei, Zhang Ruitu, Huang Daozhou, and Ni Yuanlu expressed strong personalities in their works, which formed a revolutionary trend in China’s calligraphic history. This new trend changed the then tradition that took the“two Wangs”as models and initiated the discipline of stele inscriptions in the Qing Dynasty. It also asserted influence to Modern calligraphies. These changes in calligraphy reflected the cultural transition of the Chinese society transforming from the ancient to the modern, and have practical meanings of inspiration to the development of contemporary calligraphies.
Key words: late Ming; cultural transition; calligraphy; reform
Smithsonian's Exhibition Evaluation and the Inspired Thoughts
(Three Gorges Museum of China, Chongqing 400015)
Abstract: Smithsonian is the world's largest museum and research complex. Its Office of Policy and Analysis (OP&A) is aimed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Smithsonian Institution by offering an array of relevant multi-method research services including exhibition planning and evaluation. The Smithsonian exhibition evaluation scheme is more objective, professional and authoritative compared with that of China where a pre-design evaluation is often omitted from a project’s development process and exhibitions are over influenced by the sponsor or the administrative body. Chinese museums shall learn from their American fellows to introduce the third-party-evaluation scheme so as to increase the objectivity. Visitor experiences and approaches to effective information transmission are to be more focused. Evaluation reports shall be seriously taken as guides to better museum practices.
Key words: Smithsonian Institution; exhibition project evaluation; present situation; thoughts
A Study on the History and Current Situation of Museum Development in China’s Minority Regions
LEI Hong-ji1 PAN Shou-yong2
(1. School of History and Culture，Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081;2. School of Ethnology & Sociology, Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081)
Abstract: Observing museum practices and analyzing the two statistics published by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage and the State Administration of Ethnic Affairs are helpful in reviewing the museum history of minority regions from a macro perspective. This research reveals that (a) while with a late start, museums in minority regions have developed rapidly in recent 20 years, (b) history and memorial museums take the majority and art museums are missing; a diversity in category is yet to be seen, (c) museum development imbalance exists among regions and ethnic minorities, and (d) the ecomuseum as a new type brings new vitality to the museum development in minority regions.
Key words: minority regions; museum; ecomuseum; imbalance
A Study of the Epitaph on the Tomb of Li Xiang of the Ming Dynasty
(Museum of the Cemetery of the Zhu Ran Family of the Three-Kingdom Period, Ma’anshan, Anhui, 243000)
Abstract:The epitaph“Zeng xingke jishizhong ligong hezang zhimu”dating to the Ming Dynasty was discovered at Ma’anshan, Anhui, in December 2011. It is readable despite the weathering. This epitaph contains rich historical information. It not only tells the family history of the tomb owner, but also provides supplementary materials to the record in Ming History: Liu Xu (Mingshi: Liuxu) regarding Liu’s official experience, and demonstrates the correctness of the Biography of Liu Xu (Liuxu Nianpu). It is also of significant
sense to the study of the formation of the calligraphic styles of Jiang Ligang and Cheng Luo and the exploration of the calligraphic history and the development of Kaishu (standard style of handwriting) in the Ming Dynasty.
Key words: the Ming Dynasty; epitaph; Liu Xu; Jiang Li-gang; Cheng Luo
Regarding the Tomb of Mu Rui, the Qian Duke of the Ming Dynasty: A Different Opinion
(Nanjing Municipal Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210004)
Abstract: The tomb 74JJSM3 unearthed from the cemetery of the Mu family of the Ming Dynasty on Mountain Jiangjun, Nanjing, which hosted only one mail body, received great attention due to the large number of jewelleries discovered in it. Archaeologists have identified the tomb owner as Mu Rui, the Qian Duke of the Ming Dynasty, according to the unearthed epitaph. A close observation and analysis on the remained characters on the epitaph suggest that the tomb 74JJSM3 should belong to Mu Qiyuan, son of Mu Rui. Mu Qiyuan was poisoned to death by his grandmother in the first year of the Chongzhen reign but buried as that of a Duke, which can explain the upscale of the tomb as well as the large number of the buried jewelleries. Qiyuan’s wife Chen died after the Ming Dynasty, which answers the lack of a female body in the tomb. The identification of the owner of Tomb 74JJSM3 can help to get more knowledge of the Mu descendants and their family history in the late Ming time.
Key words: Qian Duke; tomb; Mu Rui; Mu Qiyuan
A Comparative Analysis of the Participatory Scheme of Ecomuseums:Cases of the Ecomusée de la Haute-Beauce, Canada and the Soga Ecomuseum, China
(Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100089)
Abstract:Ecomuseums are experimental products of museums practices inspired by the New Museology. They focus on public relationship, which is what traditional museums lack, and encourage community participation. The Ecomusée de la Haute-Beauce in Quebec, Canada and the Soga Ecomuseum in Guizhou, China differ from each other in forms as well as the social and cultural environments they are within. The ecomuseum of Haute-Beauce regards the museum as a tool for public education and attempts to promote the community development by expanded participation of local people. Its over-distributed power and authority, however, caused some fake participation. The Soga Ecomuseum, located in a less-developed area of china, places more focus on economic development rather than cultural preservation. Tourism is closely tied to the museum’s operation and public participation is greatly restricted. The ecomuseum practice in China differs from that of western countries where the local community is the focus and a self-development structure is adopted. More attention on public participation is called for and a participatory scheme of Chinese style is expected.
Key words: public-orientation; community participation; ecomuseum
The Excavation and Research of the Zhou Mounds in Suzhou
DING Jin-long CHEN Jun
(1. Suzhu Research Institute of Archaeology, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215005;2. Suzhou Administration of Cultural Relics, Suzhou, Jiangsu,215006)
Abstract: Since the national survey of cultural relics conducted in 2008, Suzhou Research Institute of Archaeology has discovered more than 300 mounds on over 70 mountains in the northwestern part of Suzhou. These mounds are all positioned on the mountain ridges and believed to be from the period between the middle of Western Zhou through the Warring States. Some mountains host one single mound each while others are with several even tens of mounds. These mounds can be categorized as two types according to their structures: stone-chambered mounds, which is attached with one chamber and were used for military, rituals, residency or burials, and tumuli, which includes a single or multiple tombs. The burial scale and characteristics of the burial objects suggest that most of them were from the Wu or Yue with some from the Chu. The Wu tombs were found severely raided or destroyed, which is believed to be results of the vindictive diggings by Yue and Chu.
Key words: Suzhou; burial mounds; stone-chambered mounds; the Zhou Dynasty
Brief Excavation Report of the Burial Mound at Yudun in Yangshan, Suzhou
Suzhou Research Institute of Archaeology
Abstract: Suzhou Research Institute of Archaeology conducted an excavation at the Yudun site in Yangshan, Suzhou in March 2012. The excavation unearthed 7 tombs, a group of utensils and a number of burial objects. The 7 tombs are of different types and forms and believed to be of different historical periods including the Maqiao Culture, Western Zhou, and Spring and Autumn. Tomb M7 is identified as of the Maqiao Culture and is the first discovery of such in Suzhou. M6 is a rock carved tomb of the middle and late of Western Zhou time and is likely to be of a noble man.
Key words: Yangshan of Suzhou; Yudun; burial mound; Maqiao Culture; the Zhou Dynasty
Emergency Intervention Procedure and Emergency Response Mechanism Design of Modern Museums
WANG Xiu-wei HUANG Wen-chuan
(Department of History of Science-and-Technology and Archaeometry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026)
Abstract: Museum emergency intervention refers to the effective measures that museum managers take in case of emergency in order to control the situation, reduce losses and save the museum image. An established emergency intervention procedure and proper response mechanisms, which constitute the core of museum emergency intervention, will facilitate the implementation of intervention measures. Emergency intervention shall also be included into the museum’s crisis management scheme and considered with the other operational aspects for a better result.
Key words: museum; emergency; emergency intervention; procedure; emergency response mechanism
The Han Mausoleum on Lion Mountain in Xuzhou Belongs to Liu Wu, King of Chu: An Analysis
(Xuzhou Museum of Han Terracotta Warries, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, 221004)
Abstract: The Mausoleum of the Chu royalty on the Lion Mountain in Xuzhou was a major archaeological discovery regarding the Han Dynasty. As the tomb had been previously raided, the identification of the tomb owner has been disputed since the excavation and different conclusions have been drawn. Analyses on the tomb structure and the unearthed burial objects indicate that the tomb can be dated back to early Western Han and the owner should be one of the three earliest Chu kings. A further study on this tomb in comparison with the other Chu tombs discovered in Xuzhou suggests that the owner should be Liu Wu, the third Chu King of the Western Han time. It may provide significant sense to the study of the structural development of rock-carved tombs of the Chu state, Western Han, and the chronology of the Chu tombs discovered in Xuzhou, and particularly to the further research on the history of the Rebellion of the Seven States, which took place in the early Han time.
Key words: Western Han; Lion Mountain in Xuzhou; mausoleum of the Chu royalty; tomb owner; Liu Wu