Summary of the Conference on the Origins and Formation of Chinese Civilization Secretariat of the Executive Committee of the Research Project on the Origins of Chinese Civilization
Abstract:The conference on the origins and formation of Chinese civilization was held in Zhangjia gang, Jiangsu, from May 20th to 23rd, 2012. Over one hundred scholars from about ten academic institutions attended the conference and discussed the conference theme from the following five topics: recent archaeological discoveries and studies on Chinese civilization at its original phase; new studies on the process of civilization based on archaeological discoveries; interdisciplinary approach in the research of the origins of Chinese civilization; relationships between archaeology, scientific and technological research and philological history; and theoretical research on the origins of Chinese civilization. Participants also exchanged research results in the past ten years, presented archaeological advancements and discussed the new research environment caused by interdisciplinary communications. The conference promoted the research on the origins and formation of Chinese civilization toward a higher stage.
Key words: origins of Chinese civilization; Research Project on the Origins of Chinese Civilization; Archaeology; interdisciplinary
The Characteristics and Development Trends of Chinese Archaeology in the 21st Century: A Discussion Generated from the Research Project
on the Origins of Chinese Civilization：An Interview With Director WANG Wei
WANG Wei1 LIN Liu-gen2
(1.Archaeological Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100710; 2.Nanjing Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016)
Abstract: Since the beginning of the 21st century, Chinese archaeology has presented new disciplinary characteristics and trends for development, toward which, Wei Wang, Director of the Archaeological Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, gave the following opinions: Alongside with its own development, Chinese archaeology, with the research project on the origins of Chinese civilization and its achieved results as a particular driving force, has formed its own style and characteristics and is marching toward being more scientific, international, social and popularized; Chinese archaeologists should conduct more international exchanges and borrow ideas from their foreign colleagues; The disciplinary construction of archaeology is a responsibility shared by administrative and research entities of cultural relics and archaeology, which requires a complete set of sub-disciplines that suits China’s actual situation, complies with the development trend of Chinese archaeology, and is able to train enough skilled archaeologists; Public archaeology is a new trend of the field, toward which, new ideas and institutions should be adopted, personnel expertise should be focused, the purity of archaeology and the disciplinary ethics should be firmly held, so as to enable archaeology to better serve the society and heritage preservation cause.
Key words: Chinese Archaeology; development trend; public archaeology; Research Project on the Origins of Chinese Civilization
An Analysis of the Geometric Symbols Found at Shuangdun Site in Bengbu
(Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039)
Abstract: The carved symbols on the pottery wares unearthed at Shuangdun Site in Bengbu are important materials for the study of early characters and the development of civilization. Among them, geometric symbols represented some original ideas and were used for recording events. Wave shaped symbols were mainly used to represent dynamic images.Circle symbols may stand for heaven. Symbols in square or cross shape may refer to the land or“the four directions”.
Key words: Shuangdun Site; geometric symbols“;round sky and square earth”(Tian Yuan Di Fang)
A Study of Bixian An
(History Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210093)
Abstract: Bixian An used to refer to the large stele in Yixing which has the inscription of“Reading place of Zhu Yingtai”on. Research has, however, revealed that Bixian An is not the place where Zhu Yingtai used to study. The newly discovered stele engraved with“Reading place of Zhu Yingtai”, which had been missing for hundreds of years, is the most important evidence of the tale of Liang and Zhu being originated from Yixing. Bixian An stele is proved to be from the Ming Dynasty.
Key words: Bixian An; Tale of Liang and Zhu; Zhu Yingtai; stele
Attention Orienting of Museum Exhibitions: A Case Study of the Exhibition of the Relics Unearthed from the Mausoleum of the Nanyue King
(Museum of the Western Han Dynasty Mausoleum of the Nanyue King, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510040)
Abstract: Attention is the prerequisite of information to be processed. Museum visiting is not the only choice that visitors may attend. Most museum visiting behaviours are driven by involuntary attention, which should be taken into account throughout the museum’s operating process. Prior to creating an exhibition, relevant information should be collected and both the content and the form of the exhibition should be well designed. During the trial exhibition time, audience attention evaluation that considers the number of captured visitors, the engaging time and the post interviews with the visitors should be carried out and adjustments should be made according to the evaluation results. After the opening, efforts including utilizing different resources and approaches should be made to improve attention orienting so as to strengthen the communication between the museum and its audience, by which, the functions of the museum to educate and communicate is to be realized.
Key words: museum; exhibiting; audience; attention; orienting
From Mount Tai to the East China Sea or from the East China Sea to the Underground: A Discussion of the Common-Use Terms on the Land Certificates Prior to the Middle of the Northern Song Time
(History Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210093)
Abstract: Discussions on the meanings of those common-use terms such as donghai (East China Sea), shuizhongyu (fish in the water), and gaoshanlu (deer in the mountain) regularly seen on the land certificates before the middle of the Northern Song and the changes to identify the landlords in the Tang and Song dynasties may reason out the following conclusions: While the belief of the East China Sea might exist around Xinjiang area during the years between the former Qin and the Early Tang, the relevant ideas and memories were fading away at Jiangxi and Hubei from the Song and had almost disappeared when it came to the Southern Song; The beliefs of after-death world, which might be connected to the belief of East China Sea, as well as the sacred creatures living by the eastern coast including the fishes, deer and cranes also faded away; the new ways to call the landlords, which used to be specific names such as Zhang Jiangu and Li Dingduo, might refer to a new belief in otherworld.
Key words: land certificate; Song Dynasty; East China Sea; Jiangxi
The Process of Civilization of the Middle Reaches of the Huai River: A Study Based on the Archaeological Materials of Yuhui Heritage Site
QIAN Ren-fa1 WANG Ji-huai2
(1.Bengbu City Museum, Bengbu, Anhui, 233000;2.Archaeological Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100710)Abstract: Located at the eastern cost of the Huai River in Bengbu, Anhui Province, the Yuhui heritage site is the largest of its type that used to be places of sacrificial practices, and is generally recognized as the “large-scale architectural site of etiquette”. The discovery of Yuhui site filled in the regional blanks of Longshan Culture, set a new regional type of Longshan Culture, and provided important materials for the study of the civilized degree of the pre-historical civilization in the area of Huai River. The remains of a large stage for sacrificial rituals and the facilities on it, the matching passages, ditches and pits of various forms, simple work sheds and objects complexes provide evidences for the event of Yu meeting with vassals as recorded by literatures and folklores and enjoy high academic value as they added new materials to the research of the origins of Chinese civilization.
Key words: middle reaches of the Huai river; Yuhui Site; Longshan Culture; origins of Chinese civilization; the event of Yu meeting with vassals
The Origins of the Early Sculptures of Mogao Caves of Dunhuang
(Academy of Fine Arts, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210093)
Abstract: Buddhist sculptures are the major part of the grotto art of Dunhuang. It is believed that the early painted sculptures at Dunhuang inherited the tradition in formation of China’s centuries-old sculptural art and achieved a distinctive style of being integrative, reserved and decorative. Early artists of Dunhuang actively introduced the alien techniques of Buddhist art and integrated them into the local cultural discourse, which commenced the journey of Dunhuang’s sculptural art with a novel style of a native color. Like the other artistic forms there, the early sculptures of Mogao Caves represent a history of artistic exchanges between China and the west and a graphic witness of early Chinese national art spreading toward the west.
Key words: Dunhuang；Mogao Caves；early sculptures
Investigation Report of Audience Behaviour of Hubei Provincial Museum
Research Centre for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University，Department of Museum Studies
of the Faculty of Arts of Jilin University, Department of Social Education of Hubei Provincial Museum
Abstract: The behaviour of a museum audience refers to the totality of his continuous actions in a museum setting, which is often goal-oriented. Follow-up investigation and spot observation are two major approaches to conduct museum audience research. The investigations and statistical analyses on the exhibition Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng State held in Hubei Provincial Museum concerning audience behaviour, visiting time, ratio of visited exhibits, utilization ratio of labels indicates the museum’s situation in exhibition line arrangements, facilities, and public services, which my provide a reference to the visitor services of other museums in China.
Key words: museum; visiting behaviour; audience research; follow-up investigation; spot observation
A Study of the Countermeasures to the Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements of Cultural Heritage Preservation in China: A Supply and Demand Analysis
WANG Ming-ming WEN Qin-qin
(School of Economy and Management, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029)
Abstract: Cultural Heritage preservation is faced with new situation for development during the Twelfth Five-Year time, of which, the transformation of scientific and technological achievements has attracted special attention and become one of the hot topics within the field. Due to the specificity of heritage preservation achievements transformation and the phased characteristics of the development in the relevant fields, gaps exist between the supply and demand for science and technologies of cultural heritage preservation and the achievements transformation ration remains low. To counter this situation, the state should establish the incentive evaluation mechanism and promote the interdisciplinary cooperation, so as to ensure effective supply and demand of scientific and technological achievements.
Key words: cultural heritage preservation; transformation of scientific and technological achievements; supply; demand
The Pursuit of the Legal Status of the Immovable Cultural Heritage Preservation Planning
(Nanjing Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016)
Abstract: As planning is a key technical item of immovable cultural heritage preservation, to find its proper legal status is essential. An ideal approach is to establish the legal framework of cultural relics protection that pays enough attention on preservation planning. It is also beneficiary if the planning work of heritage preservation achieves its legal status, a realization of which, feasible measures in terms of current situation may include to integrate the key parts of the preservation plan into the master plan, to format the preservation plan as a legal document, and to offer special legislative treatment to major preservation projects.
Key words: immovable historical relics; preservation planning; legal status
Criteria and Explanation of Early Civilizations
(Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433)
Abstract: Cultural and social criteria prevailing in the exploration of the origin of early civilizations are discussed. They are indicators of a transition of the research from chronology to process. Cultural criteria deal with urbanism, bronze production and wirings, and their implication to social evolution. Social criteria deal with four social types of New Evolutionism. Some comments are made on chiefdom and incipient state. At last, it is argued that archaeological community in China has to set up a uniform concept framework and terminology, in order to reduce meaningless disputes and promote research quality.
Key words: early civilization; cultural criteria; social criteria; explanation
2009 Report of the Test Excavation at the Tongjia’ao Site in Cixi，Zhejiang
Ningbo Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology; Cixi City Museum，Zhejiang
Abstract: The Tongjia’ao heritage site is located at Tongjia’ao village in Henghe town, Cixi city. The test excavation on this site in 2009 unearthed abundant remains of constructions, animals and plants of the early and late period of Hemudu Culture including the good conditioned road remains. These discoveries provide new materials for the study of Hemudu Culture.
Key words: Tongjia’ao Site; Hemudu Culture; road remains
Thin-Line-Engraved Mythical Animal Patterns of Fanshan and Yaoshan and the Relevant Issues
(Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433)
Abstract: Analyses on the engraved patterns on the jades unearthed from the tombs at Fanshan and Yaoshan reveal that the thin-line-engraved mythical animals patterns of the Liangzhu society are of different styles and believed to be from different ethnic groups. The similarities of these patterns demonstrate that jade exchanges were conducted between the noble groups of the time at a broad scale, which is of significant sense to the study of the mutual relationships between the noble groups of Liangzhu culture.
Key words: Fanshan; Yaoshan; mythical animals pattern; pattern
Investigations on the Archaeological Ensemble of Heritage Sites at Linping, Yuhang, Zhejiang
(Zhejiang Provincial Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310014)
Abstract: With the advancing of archaeological work, a cluster of heritage sites at Linping, 20 kilometers to the east of Liangzhu archaeological ensemble, came to be known. So far 13 heritage sites of different scales and types of Liangzhu Culture have been discovered spanning an area of 30 square kilometers. Linping archaeological ensemble, inferior to Liangzhu ensemble in terms of scale and rank, is a sub-cultural hub, of which, the noble tombs at Hengshan, the group of moated settlements at Yujiashan, and the large scale agricultural remains at Maoshan are representatives of the cultural contents. The Linping ensemble reflects the factual situation concerning the noble ranking, social structure, and productive level of Liangzhu Culture.
Key words: Liangzhu Culture; Linping archaeological ensemble; moated settlements; agricultural remains
A Review and Rethinking of the Research into the Origins of Chinese Civilization
(Archaeological Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100710)
Abstract: While the exploration into the origins of early Chinese civilization using archaeological materials started in 1929 when the excavation of Yinxu was conducted, the major jobs were carried out after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, which can be divided into three phases: Early period (1950s-1970s), booming period (1980s-1990s) and period of new advancement and new challenges (2000-2011). It has been commonly agreed in the academy that nothing but archaeology is the major force of this research and field archaeology is the key to the solution. Lack of knowledge about the research achievements in the foreign countries has held back the advancing of the research in China. Chinese researchers today have realized the importance of interdisciplinary studies. While new knowledge on some specific topics may be easier to get during the research process, to generalize from a macro perspective requires continuous studies.
Key words: origins of Chinese civilization; research; review; thinking
The Myth of Emperor Zhuanxu Cutting the Connection between Heaven and Earth and the Tortoise Divination of Lingjiatan Site
(Anthropology Department of Zhongshan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong，510275)
Abstract: The myth that Zhuanxu cut the connection between heaven and earth, which has been regarded as a major reformation of primitive religions, is rich in connotation in the view of literature and ethnology. The fact that bone divination became popular at the time of Longshan Culture, as concluded by archaeological research, implicates the specialization of witchcraft reflected in the myth of Zhuanxu, the chronology of which is therefore confirmed. The traces of divination practice as shown on the jade tortoises and jade plates unearthed at Lingjiatan Site indicate that the primitive eight-trigram had formed before Emperor Zhuanxu times.
Key words: Emperor Zhuanxu times; cutting the connection between heaven and earth; Lingjiatan Site; tortoise divination; the primitive eight-trigram