Regarding the Phrase 天目(Temmoku)
FANG Yi 1 Mizukami Kazunori 2
( 1. Southern Song Dynasty Official Kiln Museum, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310008;2. Senshu University, Tokyo, Japan)
Abstract: In Japan, regarding the phrase 天 目, Temmoku in Japanese, people practicing tea ceremonies have different view from those doing ceramic archaeology. Originally, Temmoku referred to tea sets with Buddhist etiquette, which was related to the introduction of Buddhist tea ceremonies to Japan. It was possibly brought by a Japanese monk in the early 14th century from the temples on Tianmu Mountain of Zhejiang, China. These temples were most likely related to the Zen Monk named Zhongfengmingben.
Key words: Temmoku；Tianmu Mountain；bowl with black glaze; Buddhist temple and tea ceremony
A Brief Analysis on Museum Exhibition Labels: Case Studies of Audience Research
(Chengdu Museum, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610015)
Abstract: Audience research is the core of modern museum studies. Western museum scholars study the characteristics of museum audience’s reading behaviour by methods of observation and data statistical analysis. The studies have shown that the audience’s self-cognition system leads his or her visiting behaviours including reading, which contributes to his or her museum experience. The words style and label design affect the audience’s reading behaviour. Hence, objective audience surveys and preliminary exhibition evaluations are essential before the curation and label making are carried out, which is a key to make efficient museum labels but also a weak link in museum exhibition curating currently in China.
Key words: museum; exhibition labels; audiences research
CAI Yuan-pei’s Thoughts on Museum Aesthetic Education
(Faculty of History and Culture, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, 475001)
Abstract: Mr. CAI Yuan-pei, a notable educator and thinker of China, valued aesthetic education highly for the important role it plays in forming sound personalities and promoting integrated development of people. According to Cai, the artistic collections of museums provide important material base for aesthetic education, the direct viewing of objects offers the best approach to cultivate the appreciation of aesthetics, and the engaging narratives of displays and the public feature of museum education are in consonance with the characteristics of aesthetic education. Cai argued further that museums were an important medium and carrier of aesthetic education. Paying attention to museum development is a way to value social aesthetic education, which is in line with the principles of aesthetic education development.
Key words: CAI Yuan-pei; aesthetic education; sound personalities
An Analysis of the Hengling Mountain Cemetery in Boluo, Guangdong
(Sociology and Anthropology Faculty, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510275; Zhuhai Museum, Zhuhai, Guangdong, 519015)
Abstract: The Hengling Mountain in Boluo, Guangdong housed a large cemetery with tombs dating back to the Shang and Zhou period. The burial objects enjoy a great variety, according to which, the tombs can be categorized as rough-stone tombs, spinning-wheel tombs, weapons tombs, and the fourth type of tombs. Obvious differences exist between the four categorizes of tombs concerning the quantity, grouping and distribution of the burial objects. Hence, to analyze the characteristics of the four categories of tombs is of great significance to study the cemetery layout, burial customs, tomb classification, social division of labor and social classification.
Key words: Hengling Mountain cemetery; rough-stone tombs; spinning-wheel tombs; weapons tombs; the fourth type of tombs
A Brief Discussion on the Outline of the County Museums Framework of Jiangsu Province
(Jiangsu Provincial Administration of Cultural Heritage, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210005)
Abstract: To basically realize modernization has become a confirmed objective for development of Jiangsu Province, with which, to build a framework of county museums covering the whole province has been set as a binding indicator, as regulated by the twelfth five-year plan for the development of the cultural relics cause of Jiangsu. The framework shall be outlined from five levels including objectives, distribution, structure, phrases and systems, which can be realized through five effective channels including emphasizing the leading responsibility of the governments, offering guiding policies, obeying scientific rules, encouraging diverse stakeholders, admitting the museum being a public non-profit institution, and observing the codes of ethics of the field. The framework outline will promote the integrated functional advantages of Jiangsu’s county museums.
Key words: the county museums framework of Jiangsu province; outline; basic modernization
A Brief Report on the Exploration and Test Excavation at the Heritage Site of the Stone City in Nanjing, 1998-1999
HE Yun-ao1 SHAO Lei2
(1. History Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210093;2. Nanjing Municipal Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210004)
Abstract: The Stone City was the site where Nanjing commenced its history as an important capital city of China. It is of great significance to the study of the history of the Six Dynasties and Nanjing’s urban development. Nanjing Research Institute of Cultural Relics conducted investigation, exploration and test excavations at the area of Qingliang Mountain from July 1998 to February 1999. A series of archaeological research has demonstrated that the earth wall located in current Qingliang Mountain area is the remains of the Stone City wall from the Six Dynasties. The wall was firstly built in the Eastern Wu time and was extended after the Eastern Jin period. It was around the period of the Five Dynasties or Northern Song that the city wall was abandoned.
Key words: Six Dynasties; heritage site of the Stone City; Nanjing; city wall
A Discussion of the Longquan Porcelains Unearthed in Southeast Asia: The Site Condition, Periodization and Others
(The Palace Museum, Beijing, 100009)
Abstract: In recent years, a large quantity of Longquan porcelains spanning from the late Northern Song to the mid-Ming have been discovered from some land sites or under-water wrecks in Southeast Asia. These discoveries to a certain extent reflect the history of Longquan porcelains being shipped to Southeast Asia. These porcelains are of various types including bowls, plates, washing utensils, bottles, incense burners, jars, high-foot cups, basins, boxes, pots, and water containers, of which, bowls, plates and jars take the majority. These porcelains were mainly used in local as living utensils, ritual wares, funeral objects, tomb furneture, and decorations. The large export of Longquan porcelain to Southeast Asia asserted significant influence to the local porcelain manufacture.
Key words: Southeast Asia; Longquan celadon porcelain; unearthed/unwatered
The Regionalization and Periodization of the Proto-Porcelain of the Shang
(Zhejiang Provincial Research Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310014)
Abstract: Most of the proto-porcelains of the Shang era were discovered in Zhejiang and Henan, particularly the former, with few in other regions including Jiangsu, Fujian, Shandong, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi. In the southeast regions, of which Zhejiang is a centre, the proto-porcelains were mainly unearthed from ancient sites of cities, tombs and kilns, and can be divided as of five periods spanning throughout the Shang Dynasty, based on which, a chronology of the Shang proto-porcelains in the area of Taihu Lake can be preliminarily worked out. In the central regions, of which Henan is a representative, the proto-porcelains, which can also be grouped as of five periods, were mainly discovered in large-scale sites of ancient capitals and high-class tombs. The proto-porcelains of central regions started to share some similarities with that of the southeast regions from their fourth period. The fifth period of southeast regions covers longer time than that of the central regions. Glazed objects were unearthed from the middle reach of the Yangtze River, including Jiangxi, and the areas around Fujian and Guangdong dating back to a relative late time. The proto-porcelains unearthed from Zhejiang enjoy a broader variety, bigger quantity and better quality. A large number of proto-porcelain kiln sites are also found in Zhejiang. Hence, it is believed that Zhejiang was the centre for proto-porcelain production and consumption.
Key words: proto-porcelain of the Shang era; regionalization and periodization; Shang kilns in Zhejiang; origin of porcelain
The 2010 Excavation Report on the Heritage Site of Qinglong Town, Qingpu District, Shanghai
Archaeological Research Department, Shanghai Museum
Abstract: The heritage site of Qinglong town is located in Qingpu District in Shanghai. It was an important port for international trades in the Tang and Song dynasties. The Department of Archaeological Research of Shanghai Museum conducted an excavation at this site in 2010, which unearthed a large quantity of remains of the Tang and Song dynasties including structure foundations, porcelain chips, wells and fire places. The excavation laid a foundation for future work.
Key words: Shanghai; the heritage site of Qinglong Town; Tang and Song dynasties; trade port
The Oriental Standpoint of World Cultural Heritage Protection
(National Research Centre for Cultural Industries, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430079; Department of Tourism, Chongqing College of education, Chongqing, 400067)
Abstract: The Orientalism is permeating the field of world cultural heritage protection through globalization. Facing the questions from the West, the first thing for oriental cultural heritages conservation is to set up an oriental standpoint according to their characteristics and specific conditions. In addition to tangible heritages, which have been addressed by international general practices based on The Venice Charter, the spiritual connotations including the collective memories of human being, cultural roots, cultural identities and cultural cohesion contained by heritages should be further emphasized. To set up an oriental standpoint will be helpful for safeguarding oriental cultures particularly against assimilation by western cultures.
Key words: world cultural heritage protection; New Orientalism; oriental standpoint
An Analysis of the Time and State Origin of the Tomb at Jiulidun, Shucheng
（Research Centre of Han Dynasty Culture，Nanyang Teachers’College，Nanyang，Henan 473061）
Abstract: A batch of bronze objects dating back to the early Warring States period were unearthed from a tomb at Jiulidun, Shucheng, Anhui province, which indicates that the burial time was around 445 BC. The bronze ritual objects from this tomb contain typical characteristics of the Chu culture, which suggests that the owner was likely to be a noble man of Chu of the early Warring States time and the area of today’s Shucheng might be his manor. The tomb also unearthed some objects belonging to the Cai and Zhongli states, which could be the spoils taken by the Chu armies when conquering Cai and Zhongli.
Key words: the tomb at Jiulidun, Shucheng; age; state origin
The Artistic Uniqueness of the Architectural Paintings in Caiyitang
(Art School of Nanjing Normal University，Nanjing，Jiangsu, 210024)
Abstract: The architectural paintings in Caiyitang, the former residence of Weng Tonghe, are fine works of decorative art of the Ming and Qing dynasties extant in China. These paintings adopt patterns of Song brocade and forms of Baofu brocade, which is an innovation of traditional art. The theme pattern “auspicious cranes and clouds”(ruihe xiangyun) represents special spiritual sense. Different crafts were applied. Caiyitang is a successful example of combination of architectural and decorative arts, which is
worth further studies.
Key words: Caiyitang; architectural decoration; color paintings; uniqueness
Cultural Heritage and the Sustainable Development of Tourism
UNESCO Beijing Office
Abstract: Tourism brings challenges as well as opportunities to heritage preservation and heritage sites management. While affecting the preservation of culture and heritage values, and asserting impacts on societies, local communities and intangible heritages, tourism also provides opportunities for development in that it creates infrastructures that can benefit the local. The UNESCO has been long dedicated to the protection and development of cultural and natural heritages, creating prospective tourism, admitting cultural diversity, and emphasizing the positive influence of tourism on heritage preservation. The“Good Tourism”that the UNESCO has been promoting calls for a range of actions to be undertaken including to consider issues of authenticity and integrity, regularly assesse sites such as World Heritage sites, monuments, historical buildings, national parks and museums, raise public awareness about new tourism products and less-visited sites, and improve the experience for the visitors, so as to serve human well-being, protect and conserve natural and cultural heritage, and support and strengthen economic and social development, which will benefit cultural heritage preservation and the sustainable development of tourism.
Key words: tourism; cultural heritage; sustainable development;“Good Tourism”; heritage site; authenticity
China’s Exploration for the Concepts of Cultural Relics Conservation
(The Palace Museum, Beijing, 100009)
Abstract: By learning the institutional and methodological experiences from its western partners, China has explored and developed the concepts and methods for cultural relics conservation and restoration applicable to the unique characteristics of Chinese traditional culture. To maintain and represent the full value of cultural relics should be taken as the highest standard of conservation and restoration. Three principles –“retaining the historic condition”, which means all the original information contained by the cultural relics shall not be changed,“minimal intervention”, which supports the long term preservation, and “distinguishable”, which enable the full value to be represented – should be followed. Both traditional techniques and modern skills should be applied to disclose the value of cultural relics so as to maintain their
authenticity, integrity and scientificity.
Key words: concepts of cultural relics conservation; Principle of retaining the historic condition of cultural relics; Principle of minimal intervention; Principle of distinguishable; authenticity
A Brief Review of Influential Western Thoughts of Heritage Interpretation
(College of Humanities, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361005)
Abstract: Heritage interpretation refers to the activities that intend to reveal the meanings of cultural and natural heritages, the functions of which include heritage protection, tourism management, leisure and entertainment, education, publicizing and so on. Research on heritage interpretation originated in the United States. The thought of Freeman Tilden published in 1957, which advocates “through interpretation, understanding; through understanding, appreciation; through appreciation, protection”, has made a great contribution to the fast development of heritage interpretation research in countries such as the UK, Canada and Australia. Today, a series of thoughts and experiences on interpretation has been developed in the West. To review and introduce some of the influential thoughts may provide references for the research and practice of Chinese heritage interpretation.
Key words: heritage interpretation; heritage protection; tourism management
Museum Communication under Information Globalization
(Research Centre for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130012)
Abstract: While sharing some basic qualities with mass media, museums enjoy their distinguished characteristics as being sensible and carrying cultures. In the new environment of information globalization, as a special medium which collects, displays and studies cultural heritage, museums should build their authority as a communicator, adopt new approaches for exhibiting and interpreting, and achieve impact through advertising films or websites, so as to better meet the public needs.
Key words: information globalization; museum communication; media
Questioning the Age of the No.2 Tomb at Ganquanshan, Yangzhou
(Imperial Examination Museum, Taizhou, JiangSu, 225308)
Abstract: From the structure and the accompanying funeral objects of the No. 2 tomb at Ganquanshan, Yangzhou, it can be deduced that the owner the Guangling King was from the late instead of early Eastern Han time. Ancient literature has also indicated that the Guangling Kingdom existed until the end of the Eastern Han. The Seal of Guangling King, which was discovered previously, could possibly date to the late Eastern Han. It was, however, also possible that it was from the early Eastern Han but kept in using until the late Eastern Han.
Key words: No. 2 Tomb at Ganquanshan, Yangzhou; Seal of Guangling King; the late Eastern Han
Differences in the Blue and White Porcelain Manufacture of the Yuan Dynasty:A Discussion Inspired by the Lotus-Leaf-Covered Blue and White Porcelain Jars Collected in Gao’an Museum
(Gao’an Museum, Gao’an, Jiangxi, 330800)
Abstract: The two blue and white porcelain jars with lotus-shaped covers and dragon and cloud design were unearthed together from a cellar of Yuan Dynasty in Gao’an, Jiangxi province. The condition and the shape, design and manufacture technologies suggest that they may be manufactured in the same kiln and of the same batch. Slight differences, however, can also be found through detailed observations. In identifying the Yuan blue and white porcelains, a conclusion cannot be made without thorough observations and analyses taking into account all aspects of the objects.
Key words: blue and white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty; unearthed from cellars; diversity