Records of the Stone Case Holding the Pagoda with Shakyamuni’s Sarira in Jinling Changgan Temple and the Relative Issues
GONG Ju-ping QI Hai-ning
（Nanjing Municipal Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210004）
Abstract: A stele with the inscription entitled Records of the Stone Case Holding the Pagoda Holding Shakyamuni’s Sarira in Jinling Changgan Temple was unearthed from a former temple site of the Song Dynasty, currently the heritage site of Dabaoen Temple, in Nanjing in 2008. The inscription was well carved and preserved, and is of significant academic value for studying the history of Changgan Temple and the making of the Pagoda that holds Shakyamuni’s sarira. The investigation reveals that the sarira was provided by a Northern Song monk called Shihu, the structure of the underground chamber of Changgan Temple was influenced by that of the Six Dynasties time, and to hold the sarira in an Asoka Tower was apparently an influence from the Wuyue state of the Five Dynasties time.
Key words: Changgan Temple; Buddhist Pagoda; underground chamber; sarira; stone case
A Causal Analysis of the Shape and Structure of the Underground Chamber of Shenggan Pagoda in Changgan Temple of the Northern Song Dynasty
QI Hai-ning GONG Ju-ping
（Nanjing Municipal Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210004）
Abstract: The underground chamber of Shenggan Pagoda, which was unearthed from the site of Changgan Temple of the Northern Song Dynasty in Nanjing in 2008, is a round and vertical earthen pit. It is the only case of such shape and structure among those Song pagodas discovered by now. However, it is similar to those of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. A review of the development of underground chambers of the Sarira pagodas in China and the history of Changgan Temple in Pagoda construction suggests two possibilities: Shenggan pagoda may have kept the underground chamber from the Six Dynasties time or it was an intentional imitation of that of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
Key words: Northern Song Dynasty; Changgan Temple; Shenggan Pagoda; underground chambers; shape and structure
Theoretical Studies and the Developing Direction of Museums: An Interview with Mr. Su Dong-hai
SU Dong-hai1 MAO Ying2 GONG Qing3
(1、3. National Museum of China, Beijing 10006; 2. Nanjing Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016)
Abstract: Since the beginning of the 21th century, Chinese museums have encountered a new round of development that brings a range of significant new challenges to the study of museum theories and development. Mr. Su Dong-hai, a well-known museologist, expresses his ideas and opinions as follows: The theoretical studies of museums should start with the practices of museum development, which, on the other hand, should focus on the development strategies as well as the themes of the times; As a new product of the theories and practices of cultural heritage conservation, ecomuseums represent an opposite to traditional museums with, however, a unity between. The success of ecomuseum practices is based on the premise that indigenous people are the real owner of their culture; The conservation and promotion of cultural heritage are in line with the present strategic thinking of the International Council of Museums (ICOM), reflecting the themes of the times of museums; Museums should realize and enhance their special characters in knowledge, aesthetics and ethics as well as improve their functions in profession and social responsibilities so as to increase their cultural competitiveness; Museum theorists should have a clear mind in front of the complicated situation within the field and make more thorough studies of museums in China and abroad as well as the basic theories of museology, so as to explore a theoretical system and a road for Chinese museums toward development and build the Museology with Chinese characteristics.
Key words: museum theories, museum development, Museology, Su Dong-hai
A Primary Exploration of Ancient Towns Classification and the Protective Utilization of Resource Based Ancient Towns in China
(History Department of Nanjing University，Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093)
Abstract: Towns are a major type of human settlements. According to their formation and social functions, ancient towns can be classified into five categories: rural settlements, regional trading centers, resource based towns, military towns and cultural landscapes. Resource based towns were formed in the process of developing and utilizing the natural resources in a certain area, reflecting the social changes of the region and constituting the local culture and memories. Aiming at serving the local people, the protective utilization focuses on creating a harmonious integration of their physical forms and cultural connotations as well as the surrounding settings of these resource based ancient towns so as to exhibit the historical information and heritage value conveyed by them.
Key words: ancient towns; classification; resource based ancient towns; protective utilization
Brief Excavation Report of the Ming and Qing Tombs at Xiangyu Park of Chuzhou in Huai’an
Abstract: A series of Ming and Qing tombs were unearthed from an ancient cemetery located at Xiangyu Park in Chuzhou, Huai’an. These tombs were built at different times. Some of them were arranged in an order of proper formalities of young and old and are believed to be the family tombs of the Ming Dynasty. A large number of exquisite funerary objects were unearthed. These objects contain clear time traces with complex cultural elements. These discoveries provide significant references to the study of the funeral customs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the local history and culture of Huai’an.
Key words: Chuzhou of Huai’an; Ming and Qing Dynasties; WU Xin family tombs
The Characteristics and Meanings of Modern Industrial Heritage Museums
(Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444)
Abstract: As a special museum type, modern industrial heritage museums are increasingly developing. The characteristics of these museums may be described as follows: based at the site of the industrial heritage; displaying the original state of the site; focusing on development traces of industrial civilization; representing the segmental and regional development history of the industry. Modern industrial heritage museums contain unique meanings. They are like a book interpreting the development history of modern industrial cities and a mirror reflecting the social life there. The construction of modern industrial heritage museums is of great significance for promoting the distinguishing characters of a city.
Key words: industrial heritage; industrial sites; museum; characteristics; meanings
Heritage Remains of Luotuodun Culture and the Prehistoric Culture of the West Taihu Lake Area (PartⅡ)
ZHANG Zhong-pei ZHAO Hui YANG Jing DING Jin-long HUANG Jian-qiu LIU Bin LIU Bao-shan SONG Jian PEI An-ping ZHANG Min SHU You-chun
Abstract: From October 28th to 30th, 2011, Luotuodun Cultural Forum: Heritage Remains of Luotuodun Culture and the Prehistoric Culture of the West Taihu Lake Area was held in Yixing, Jiangsu province. With a focus on the naming, the participants discussed a range of topics of Luotuodun Culture including the discovery of the site, the cultural connotation, academic significance and archaeological value of these remains, and the possible approaches to protect and utilize these resources and create relative cultural exchange activities. The forum has also involved discussions of culture in the archaeological discourse concerning the nomenclature, classification and standard, the geneaology, and the research methods and approaches.
Key words: industrial heritage; industrial sites; museum; characteristics; meanings
Scholars’Artistic Life in the Paintings of the Ming Dynasty
(Xi’an Academy of Fine Arts Xi’an, Shanxi 710100）
Abstract: The Ming scholars’pursuit of spiritual enjoyment was reflected in all aspects of life including elegant gatherings, enjoyment of gardens and appreciation of antiques, which were recorded in the paintings of that time. It is noted from these paintings that those describing elegant gatherings were gradually standardized and transiting towards portraits, garden and landscape themed works became more realistic, and curios collecting theme added a flavor of elegance and antiquity, which indicates that with the prosperous economy of the Ming Dynasty, scholars at the time were having a more artistic life. These paintings have also reflected the unique taste of Ming scholars towards life and art.
Key words: the Ming Dynasty; paintings; scholar; life
Porcelain as Tribute to the Imperial Court in the Southern Dynasties: An Issue of Early Official Kilns
(History Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093)
Abstract: Porcelain as tribute to the imperial court and official kilns are the major topics for discussion in the study of China’s ancient porcelain production. It has been generally acknowledged that the practice of porcelain as tribute to the imperial court started from the Tang Dynasty while the official kilns that fire imperial porcelain wares was firstly set out in the late Tang Dynasty or the Song Dynasty. However, the recently unearthed porcelain wares from Hunan Xiangyin Kiln and Nanjing, which are inscribed Tai Guan, Gong Feng, and Shang Fu, have evidenced that the porcelain-as-tribute system dates to no later than the Northern & Southern Dynasties. The unearthed porcelain making equipments with craftsmen’s names and the Chinese character“官”(governmental) on might be evidences to date the official kiln system back forward to the Southern Dynasties or the Sui Dynasty.
Key words: porcelain as tribute to the imperial court；official kiln; xiangyin kiln
Investigation and Primary Research of the Shifoan Grottoes at Huashu Village of Jiangning, Nanjing
FU Yong-li1 XU Chang-sheng 2
(1.History Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093; 2.Jiangning Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211100)
Abstract: The Shifoan Grottoes are located on the southwestern side of Mountain Shewu at Huashu village, Jiangning, Nanjing. They were built during the early Ming Dynasty for Buddhist purpose. Six grottoes are available to see with each housing one Buddha statue themed as the Three Saints in the West or One Thousand Buddhas. Investigations show that many more Buddha grottoes are still earthed calling for further excavations. With exact time records and colored paintings, Shifoan Grottoes are the very rare early Ming products of Buddhist art that have been discovered in Nanjing area. They provide valuable data for studying the Buddhist art of the Ming Dynasty and therefore have high historical and cultural values.
Key words: Jiangning; Huashu Village; Shifoan; Ming grottoes; investigation; research
Excavation and Research of the No. 3 Southern Tang Tomb at Zutangshan Site in Nanjing
WANG Zhi-gao1 XIA Ren-qin2 XU Zhi-qiang3
(1、3.Nanjing Municipal Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210004; 2. Administration for the Heritage Preservation of the Two Southern Tang Mausoleums, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211100)
Abstract: The No. 3 Southern Tang Tomb was discovered at the Zutangshan site of Nanjing, the same area where the two famed Southern Tang mausoleums, generally called Nantangerling, were unearthed. The tomb is composed of chambers and paths which were arranged in the shape of the Chinese character“中”. Over 40 objects including silver and jade wares were unearthed despite that the tomb has been raided for several times. According to the scale, structure and location of the tomb, the characteristics of the unearthed objects, and the result of the bone identification, it is believed that the tomb was from Southern Tang time and the owner is mostly likely to be Empress Zhou, wife of Emperor Li Yu of the Southern Tang. It was named Yiling in history. This tomb has been the most important archaeological discovery concerning the Southern Tang mausoleums at the Zutangshan site since the excavation of Nantangerling in the 1950s.
Key words: Zutangshan; No. 3 Tomb; Southern Tang; Empress Zhao Hui; Yiling
A Study of the Spatial Arrangement of the Residential Area of Jiankang City in the Southern Song Dynasty
(Fujian Museum, Fuzhou, Fujian 350001)
Abstract: In the Southern Song Dynasty, as an old capital, the city of Jiankang was second to the then capital Lin’an in terms of political and economic position. To study the urban spatial arrangement of Jiankang may provide resources and cultural inspiration for contemporary urban development. Concerning the spatial arrangement of the residential area, Jiangkan went through a process from the formation of an urban center, to the appearance of new streets (seen from the added street names), and to the formation of new subdivisions (seen from the added subdivision names), which significantly reflected the economic and cultural changes of the city.
Key words: Jiankang city of the Southern Song Dynasty; the residential area; the system of Xiangfang (subdivisions with security administrative organs)
The Transitional Period of the Koguryo Tombs in Ji’an
Zhao Junjie1 Ma Jian2
（1,Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 1300122, Changchun Institute of Cultural Relics Protection, Changchun, Jilin 130012）
Abstract: The structure, mural paintings and funeral objects of Yushan Tomb No. 41 (M41) show that the stone-pile tombs–Yushan M41 is a representative of such–were in use until the end of the 5th century while the earth-covered stone-chamber tombs appeared in the late period of the first half of the 5th century, the time gap between which was the transitional period of Koguryo funeral customs. It is believed that the rule of Koguryo over Lelang and Daifang areas at the time and their absorption of the Han culture were essential to this transition.
Key words: Ji’an area; Koguryo; stone tombs; stone-chamber tombs; transition
Heritage Conservation under Cultural Diversity and Social Harmony: Centering on the Resolutions of ICOM 2007 and 2010 General Conferences
（National Museum of China，Beijing，100006）
Abstract: The two resolutions from ICOM 2007 and 2010 general conferences indicate that to respect and preserve cultural diversity has been a guiding trend of ICOM’s main policies in the recent years. The resolutions advocate from many perspectives that museums should keep cultural diversity in mind in their practices in heritage conservation and strengthen their sense of responsibility in moral standards, so as to enhance the mutual understanding and tolerance between nations and promote human justice and social harmony.
Key words: resolutions of ICOM General Conferences; heritage conservation; cultural diversity; restitution of heritage; social harmony
Authenticity and Integrity: Questioning and Rethinking
(School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University,Beijing 100871)
Abstract: To question and rethink the authenticity and integrity of heritage has been an important force that drives heritage theories to be enriched and improved. The issue of integrity applies to all heritage sites, to which Integrated Protection is a responding policy and an interpretation of the concept as well. The authenticity of heritage is mainly questioned in the case of intangible heritage particularly living heritage. Now it is increasingly recognized that the authenticity of intangible heritage cannot be simply regarded as the same to that of tangible heritage. Authenticity may also take an evolved form in the intangible context. Considerations inspired by questions are likely to result in new knowledge, which shows that an open mind and limitless efforts are needed in pursuing the cause of heritage.
Key words: heritage; authenticity; integrity; questioning
A Primary Study on the Bronze Musical Instruments of the Yue Culture
(Zhejiang Provincial Museum, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310007)
Abstract: The bronze musical instruments from the Yue Culture include the Nao (a large cymbal), Yong Zhong (a bell with a cylindrical handle on top), Niu Zhong (a bell with a semi-circular knob on top), Bo Zhong (a bell with a plane opening), Gou Diao (used at sacrificial ceremonies or feasts), Duo (a hand-bell with clapper) and Gu (drum). Whiel the Naos and some of Yong Zhongs are likely to be dated to the late Shang through the Western Zhou Dynasty, the others were all from the late Spring and Autumn period through the middle of the Warring States, which may be grouped as of the Pre-Yue and Yue periods. The Nao with a southern style, was the most prominant musical instruments of the pre-Yue time. When it came to the Yue time, the Yong Zhong and Niu Zhong, which appeared in sets and with a Central-Plain style, started to be seen indicating that the nobility of the Yue State had been influenced by the Central-Plain.
Key words: Yue Culture, bronze musical instrument, genre, date, character