Heritage Remains of Luotuodun Culture and the Prehistoric Culture of the West Taihu Lake Area (Part I )
LIN Liu-gen GUO Wei-min WANG Wei LUAN Feng-shi ZHAO Bin-fu GONG Xi-cheng GAO Meng-he ZOU Hou-ben TIAN Ming-li
Abstract: From October 28th to 30th, 2011, Luotuodun Cultural Forum: Heritage Remains of Luotuodun Culture and the Prehistoric Culture of the West Taihu Lake Area was held in Yixing, Jiangsu province. With a focus on the naming, the participants discussed a range of topics of Luotuodun Culture including the discovery of the site, the cultural connotation, academic significance and archaeological value of these remains, and the possible approaches to protect and utilize these resources and create relative cultural exchange activities. The forum has also involved discussions of culture in the archaeological discourse concerning the nomenclature, classification and standard, the geneaology, and the research methods and approaches.
Key words: Yixing Luotuodun Site; Luotuodun Culture; nomenclature of archaeological culture
The Attributes of Heritage and Some Reconsideration
WU Xing-zhi (Yunnan University of Nationalities, Kunming, Yunnan 650031)
Abstract: Heritage as a cultural product left by our ancestors and to be handed down to next generations has its inherent rules of generation, development and extension. With heritage being selected as culture capital for consumption, it faces the challenges of being transformed or deprived of its nature and losing its integrity and diversity, which has put the authenticity of heritage under serious crisis. We should focus on the dilemma faced by the essential attributes of heritage in this consumption society to seek the ways of heritage protection and transmission so as to arouse the esteem for heritage when using.
Key words: heritage; subject; integrity; diversity
Urban Cultural Heritage in the Perspective of Modernization
LUO Tao (School of Design and Art, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081)
Abstract: Urban cultural heritage protection is one of the key issues to be dealt with in the process of modernization. As an important indicator of urban modernization, the protection of cultural heritage in a modern socity should focus on its sustainable development. Urban cultural heritage resources are vulnerable and collective, representing the city spirit. We need to establish a compound system of urban cultural heritage protection so as to realize its sustainable and creative development.
Key words: urban cultural heritage; protection; perspective of modernization
Brief Excavation Report of the Eastern Zhou Well at Wudangang Site in Maanshan, Anhui
Archaeological Team of History Department, Nanjing University
Anhui Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
Maanshan Cultural Relics Bureau
Abstract: From March to November in 2009, the archaeological team of Nanjing university carried out an excavation on Wudangang site in Maanshan of Anhui province, which unearthed numbers of remains of the Shang and Zhou dynasties including ditches, kilns, houses and a well. The well is the largest, deepest and most complex structure of the pre-Qin period found so far. The well contains large numbers of remains dating back to the late Spring and Autumn period through the early Warring States period.
Key words: Wudangang Site; Eastern Zhou Dynasty; well
Brief Excavation Report of the Song Tomb at Taixin Road of Nanjing
Nanjing Municipal Museum
Abstract: In 1993, a tomb of the Song Dynasty was excavated at Taixin road, Nanjing. The tomb room is in octagonal shape and the wall was decorated with complicated brick structure imitating wood. This is the first discovery of Song tombs of this type in Nanjing area. A number of porcelain wares of Longquan kiln, Jingdezhen kiln and Jizhou kiln were unearthed from the tomb. The excavation provides important materials for studying the tomb types, burial customs and social history of Nanjing area.
Key words: Nanjing; the tomb of the Song Dynasty; imitating wood structure; porcelain
Early Civilization Elements in the Prehistoric Archaeological Discoveries of Anhui
(School of History and Culture of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730020)
Abstract: Prehistoric archaeology began to develop earlier in Anhui province. The archaeological workers have found many neolithic remains in Anhui, some of which contain abundant elements of early civilization. Shuangdun pottery signs, Lingjiatan ritual jade and Yuchisi settlement pattern are of typical significance to study the forms and contents of early civilization origins in Jianghuai area and their relation to the civilization in the drainage basin of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River, calling for more attention from archaeologists.
Key words: Anhui; prehistoric archaeology; early civilization
The Shang Culture in Jiangsu Region
YAN Sheng-dong (Qilu Cultural Research Center of Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250014)
Abstract: The Shang cultural remains found across China show four major stages of development. The lower layer of Erligang site belongs to the first stage. The upper layer of Erligang through the earlier section of Yinxu Ruins I present the second stage. The third stage includes the later section of Yinxu Ruins I and Yinxu Ruins Ⅱ and Ⅲ. Yinxu Ruins IV and the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty may be categorized as the fourth stage. The Shang cultural remains in Jiangsu Province are mainly seen as in the second and fourth stages, the former of which is more typical. The north of the Yangtze River is the distributed area of the Shang Culture while the south of Jiangsu Province is the influenced one. The area around Lianyungang was the only connection to the sea in the early period of the Shang Dynasty, the Dacun site of which was the relatively advanced settlement there.
Key words: Jiangsu Province; the second stages of the Shang Culture; the distributed and influenced areas of the Shang Culture
An Archaeological Study of the Agricultural Settlement Pattern in the Han Period
LIU Xing-lin (History Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093)
Abstract: The agricultural settlement patterns of the Han Dynasty refers to the various ways of settlement of small farmers during that period, which was referred in literature as Li, usually carefully planned and with a comprehensive internal management system. Archaeologists have found two other settlement patterns. While both were formed spontaneously without previous planning, one was more scattered, the example of which was the Sanyangzhuang site in Neihuang, Henan Province, and the other was more assembled, of which, Sandaohao site in Liaoyang is an example. The field (tian) and house (zhai) of the Han farmers were not always connected although it was the case in Sanyangzhuang site. The phrase tianzhai (field and house), which has appeared a lot in ancient literature, was intended to emphasize the importance of field and house to people and the society, but not suggesting the geographical relationship between. It is essential for researchers to acknowledge the diversity of the agricultural settlement in the Han Dynasty and to study its formation and value in specific contexts, so as to enrich the literature records with archaeological discoveries.
Key words: Han Dynasty; agricultural settlement; Li (farmer's native place); tianzhai (field and house)
An Interpretation of the God-holding-a-fish Depiction of the Han-Jin Period
(Henan Museum, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002)
Abstract: Images depicting a God holding a fish, an auspicious symbol popular at the time, are mainly seen on objects of the Han—Jin period that have unearthed from a broad area in China. Attached with auspicious words, these images are believed to imply good wishes for career promotion. The depiction follows a fixed pattern. The features of the God enjoy a great similarity to those of the pre—Qin period while presenting the characteristics of the times. The concept of the Han Dynasty towards a man ascending to the immortal is also represented in the depiction. The God—holding—a—fish depiction is often accompanied by patterns such as phoenix and birds, phoenix and birds with silk ribbons, or phoenix and birds with beads in mouth on different objects. These graphic elements together with the matching texts composed the auspicious images expressing the good wishes for higher official ranks of the people of the Han—Jin period.
Key words: God holding a fish; Han—Jin; bead in mouth; phoenix and birds with ribbons
Muscular Men on the Pillars of the Southern Dynasties
(History Department of Jiangsu Institute of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013)
Abstract: The image of muscular men on the tomb pillars of the Southern Dynasties—stripped to the waist, in short pants, and with hair tied on top—is supposed to be in accordance with that of ancient times in general. As recorded in Shuijingzhu (commentary to the river classic), as early as in the Qin Dynasty muscular men' s image had been used in architectures as a divine figure. Its appearance on the pillars of the Southern Dynasties could also be of divine use for reinforcement; the body figure reflects a Qin influence. The muscular men' s image was likely a result of the Chinese pantheistic worship influenced by pragmatism instead of relating to Buddhism as some scholars assumed. Besides, the smiling faces of the muscular men depicted on the pillars of the Southern Dynasties may have been influenced by that on the T—shaped paintings unearthed from Mawangdui No.l tomb.
Key words: pillars of the Southern Dynasties; muscular God; muscular men's attire
Porcelain Wares Marked with "Ti He Dian" and Their Manufacture Time
(The Palace Museum, Beijing 100009)
Abstract: Among the porcelain collections of the Late Qing Dynasty in Beijing Palace Museum, 81 items including flowerpots, narcissus pots, round boxes and spittoons are marked with the words "Ti He Dian", 19 of which are referred in the graphic resources concerning the decorative design and patterns in the library of the museum. This article provides a comparative analysis of the real objects, the graphic references, and the archived files of porcelain—making. The result shows that the porcelain wares with "Ti He Dian" mark were manufactured in 1886 during Emperor Guangxu' s reign in celebration of Empress Dowager Ci Xi' s 52nd birthday instead of in the period of Emperor Tongzhi' s reign as previously understood. Key words: 'Ti He Dian"; porcelain wares marked with "Ti He Dian"; graphs; archives of porcelain—making
Key words: "Ti He Dian ; Porcelain wares marked with "Ti He Dian"; graphs; archives of porcelain-making
Pursuit of "Extensiveness": the Evolution of the Concept of Museum Collections
(Department of History, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001)
Abstract: The characteristics of the museum are more reflected in its collections. The diverse forms of museums' collecting practices lead to an obvious trend of the concept of museum collections toward extensiveness, which can be seen from both the museum space expanding from the indoor to include the outdoor and the scope of museum "objects' to include also non—objects. The evolution of the concept of museum collections reflects the change of the interrelationship between the "objects" and the "space" of the museum, showing the imprint of times.
Key words: museum; museum collections; antiquities; cultural samples; witness; cultural heritage
Concepts of Children Education in Museums and Designs of "Nanyue Playing Kingdom"
WANG Fang (Museum of the Nanyue King Mausoleum, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510040)
Abstract: The museum education for children has always been a great concern of the museum field worldwide. In the developed countries, in addition to setting up the children's museums, almost each of the regular museum has special areas for children with programs and activities particularly designed according to child psychology and behaviors. In terms of China, however, museum education for children has not received enough attention. Learning from its fellow museums in western countries regarding the concepts and practices in children education, Museum of the Nanyue King Mausoleum created an interactive children's zone "The Nanyue King Playing Kingdom", making the museum more accessible to children. It also sets a new approach for Chinese museums practices in children's education.
Key words: Nanyue Playing Kingdom, museum, children education
Museum Studies Curriculum in Contemporary American Universities and Its Causal Factors
WANG Chun-hui1 ZHANG Wen-li2 WANG De-fa3
(1 ^3.Tang Gu museum in Tianjin, Tianjin 300450; 2.Research Center for Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University,Changchun,Jilin 130012)
Abstract: The curriculum of museum studies for undergraduate and graduate students in contemporary American universities is well designed and developed, showing great diversity and flexibility. Causal relation—ships exist between the formation of this curriculum system and a series of factors including theories, system, society, history, culture and the guidelines on museum profession trainings adopted worldwide. Specifically, the New Museology theory and postmodern view on curriculum provide a theoretical guidance; the country' s relatively liberal education system in general enables the dynamic development; The career—courses—profe—ssion offers a model for practice; The political, economic and technological development in the country provides support in policy, funding and technology; Its developing process and the history and culture of the country serve as the historical and cultural source; The guidelines toward professional training widely accepted in the world point out the direction. To analyze the causative factors of the museum studies curriculum system in Am—erican Universities may provide instructive visions for the development of museum studies curriculum in Chinese universities.
Key words: the United States; university; museum; curriculum; causal factors
Mind' s Eye of GU Kai-zhi
(School of Fine Arts,Nanjing Arts Institute, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013 School of Art,Soochow University ,Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123)
Abstract: The Mind s Eye refers to the ability to "see" by heart, reflecting a peculiar way of perceiving of the ancient Chinese people. It was extensively used in Chinese classical literature and art, and crystallized in GU Kai—zhi' s art. A story in Shi—shuo Xin—yii shows that a painter could "see" a city absent in sight. GU' s Mind' s Eye may be connected with the Taoist cunsi (存思, meditation) , a favorite of Chinese artists contemporary to him. No confirmed evidence to show if Gu was a Taoist or not, his "religious experience" of such, however, was likely a result of influences from his contemporary literature that might be the records of Taoists practising cunsi.
Key words: GU Kai—zhi;cunsi (meditation);Taoism
New Archaeological Discoveries of Wujiachang Cemetery at Fuquanshan Site: A Seminar Briefing
Archaeological Team of Fuquanshan Site
Abstract: On May 25, 2011, the seminar "New Archaeological Discoveries of Wujiachang Cemetery at Fuquanshan Site" participated by archaeologists from Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai was held in Qingpu, Shanghai. Issues including the dating and attribution of Wujiachang Cemetery, the relics unearthed from Tomb 207 and the related concerns, and the plan for future archaeological work were discussed. Wujiachang Cemetery was located at Fuquanshan heritage site dating back to the late Liangzhu Culture, where a large Tomb 207 was newly discovered. A large number of burial objects were found in Tomb 207, some of which such as the ivory wares with god and beast designs are of great value and historical significance.
Key words: Fuquanshan Site, Wujiachang Cemetery, Late Liangzhu Culture, Tomb 207, ivory wares with god and beast designs