A Review of the Discipline Classification of the Studies of Cultural Heritage, Museums and Archaeology
CHEN Hong-jing (Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433)
Abstract: Disciplines related to cultural heritage, museums and archaeology are of different classification in the systems that provided by the Ministry of Education and that regulated by national standards. Cultural Relics Studies is not yet an officially recognized discipline, which affects the disciplinary construction of higher education. Archaeology being newly accepted as a major discipline is likely to bring name adjustments to the current graduate studies of Archaeology and Museology, which may cause the advent of Cultural Heritage and Museum Studies as a sub—discipline. The replacement of Museology by Cultural Relics and Museology in undergraduate education tends to discord with the classification of Cultural Heritage discipline. Therefore it is in need to unify the discipline classification of subjects related to cultural heritage, museums and archaeology, and to make the corresponding names in conformity.
Key words: cultural heritage, museums and archaeology; subject name; discipline classification
A Discussion of "Heritage" from the Perspective of Heritage Studies
KAN Man-neng (Cultural Tourist Guide Association of Macau, Macau, China)
Abstract: The word "heritage" in the term "heritage studies" or "heritage tourism studies" derives from its normal use in our daily life with property as its material form. The two concepts bear some differences while sharing some similarities. In addition to its ownership and value in economy and use, Heritage Studies or Heritage Tourism Studies also focuses on the cultural value of the heritage particularly in history, art, science and aesthetics, as well as its protection and transmission. Heritage can be differently classified according to different criteria or from different perspectives. Years of research by experts in Heritage Studies has shown that the term" heritage"is close to the target and the disciplinary characteristics of Heritage Stuedies and Heritage Tourism Studies.
Key words: Heritage Studies; cultural heritage; heritage in daily life; property
Approaching Cultural Heritage Studies: Problems and Countermeasures: An Interview with Professor HE Yun-ao
HEYun-ao1 MAO Ying2
(1. History Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093; 2. Nanjing Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016)
Abstract: The disciplinary construction of Cultural Heritage Studies has been a great concerns in academia in the recent years. HE Yun—ao, Professor of Nanjing University, points out: Cultural Heritage Studies is likely to be questioned of its disciplinary construction as it is a newly built discipline which still suffers from the lack of practices and the obstruction caused by other existing disciplines. However, as cultural heritage studies is strongly characterized of modernity, sociality, and interdisciplinarity, differentiating from close disciplines such as Archaeology, Cultural Relics Studies and Museology, the disciplinary construction of Cultural Heritage Studies enjoys an advantage in meeting the needs of China's modernization construction and national development and responding to the challenge of globalization. All concerned parties (the education department and other relevant authorities, college and universities, research institutions, and museums) should seek close collaboration on making creative efforts to promote the disciplinary construction of Cultural Heritage Studies by approaches including learning the experience from the advanced countries, particularly the neighboring countries such as Japan and Korea, and giving full play to academic journals as the guide and platform. Moreover, the construction of Cultural Heritage Studies toward a full-fledged disciplinary system is expected to be effectively promoted with it being listed as a major discipline by the Ministry of Education.
Key words: Cultural Heritage Studies; disciplinary construction; interdisciplinarity; cultural heritage undertakings; countermeasure; HE Yun—ao
A Literature Review of Culture Heritage Studies in China
WANG Yun-liang (Institute of history, Henan university, Kaifeng, Henan, 475001)
Abstract: Since the beginning of the 21st century, the concept of "cultural heritage" has been increasingly understood, accepted and practiced by Chinese people. Meanwhile, the construction of Cultural Heritage Studies has caught increasing attention and been extensively explored. Through their vast publications, scholars and practitioners including CAI Da-feng, PAN Ru-dan, CAO Bing-wu, YANG Zhi-gang, YUAN Li, SUN Hua, HE Yun—ao, LI Zhi—chao, PENG Zhao—rong, XU Song—ling, LI Jun, and ZHANG Ting—hao have made extensive discussions of Cultural Heritage Studies discipline including its system, nature, object of study, research methods as well as the concept of cultural heritage and its protection, which has greatly promoted the disciplinary construction and theoretical framework building of Cultural Heritage Studies.
Key words: Cultural Heritage Studies; literature; review
An Analysis of the Value of Heritage
ZHAO Hong-mei (Tourism and Geology Science Institute, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan,650092)
Abstract: The value of heritage remains a confusing issue while the conservation of national heritage has been practiced for more than 200 years since its debut in France. Compared to the general goods and services in an economic system, what special value does heritage own? How can such value be evaluated? What impact can cultural heritage make on the society? These are the questions to be investigated. In a way, to make sense of the past in the present is the key factor that turns the value of heritage from the sacred to the secular. The recent thriving in "heritage preservation", heritage research" and "heritage tourism"have all demonstrated the value of heritage concerning its evaluation, construction, measurement and endowment, which further discloses the spiritual practices of human being behind the heritage value.
Key words: heritage; value; identity; symbol
Community Archaeology: Cultural Heritage Management or Archaeological Research
XU Jian (History Department of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong , Guangzhou 510275)
Abstract: Community archaeology provides a new perspective on cultural heritage management and archaeological research. Its practice worldwide, however, is still underdeveloped and unbalanced, varying from region to region. Community archaeology empowers the local community to control archaeological activities, the focus of which is the transfer of right and power of archaeology in excavation, public presentation, education and merchandising. Community archaeology identifies the local community as the subject of cultural heritage management, and clarified the misunderstandings concerning the concept of ecology and the relationship between cultural preservation and economic development in the ecomuseum movement in China. In terms of archaeological research, community archaeology, as a form of contextual archaeology, reveals issues beyond the reach of traditional archaeology by adopting a different perspective.
Key words: Community Archaeology; power; cultural heritage management; Contextual Archaeology
Brief Excavation Report on the Old Course of Bian River at the Site of Liuwei, Sixian , Anhui
Cultural Relics and Archaeology Institute of Anhui Province; Cultural Relics Preservation Offices of Sixian
Abstract: From March to April in 2011, the Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology of Anhui Province carried out an excavation at the site of Liuwei in Anhui province, which discovered numbers of remains of the Han through the Tang—Song Dynasties. It is the first time that the north embankment of the Bian river of the Tang—Song Dynasties was discovered within the Sixian section of the Grand Canal. The discovered tread surfaces of the Song Dynasty and the related remains reflect the prosperous transportation carried by the Bian River at the time. The tombs of the Late Northern Song and the Early Southern Song Dynasties unearthed at this site confirm the historical period when the Bian River fell into disuse, as recorded in some literature.
Key words: Liuwei site; Han to Tang and Song Dynasties; Tread surfaces; North embankment of Bian River
Brief Excavation Report of the Granary Site of the Song and Yuan Dynasties at Shuangjing Road in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu
Nanjing Museum Zhenjiang Museum
Abstract: During 2009—2010, Nanjing museum and Zhenjiang museum carried out an archaeological exploration and excavation at the site of Shuangjing Road. The excavation reveals a series of archaeological discoveries including the Cao river of the Song Dynasty, the Guan river course of the Qing Dynasty, Tuoban bridge of the Late Yuan and Early Ming Dynasties, Jingkou posthouse of the Qing Dynasty, the granary remains of the Song and Yuan Dynasties, and the architectural remains of the government offices in the Song Dynasty. Unearthed artifacts include bricks and tiles with inscription of "官 " or "昌" from the Song Dynasty and some other relics from the Tang through the Qing Dynasty. The excavation provided significant materials for the research of the Grand Canal and granary remains of the Song and Yuan Dynasties and the regional culture of Zhenjiang.
Key words: Zhenjiang Shuangjing Road; water transportation on the Grand Canal; the Cao River of the Song Dynasty; granary site of the Song and Yuan Dynasties; Tuoban Bridge; Jingkou posthouse; government architecture remains
Research on Granary Remains in Zhenjiang of the Song and Yuan Dynasties: Zhuan-Ban Granary; Huai-Dong Zong-Ling Suo; Da-Jun Granary
WANG Shu-min (Zhenjiang Municipal Bureau of Culture Broadcast and Publication, Jiangsu, Zhenjiang 212002)
Abstract: According to the archaeological data and literature, the remains of eight granaries of the Southern Song Dynasty excavated at the site of Shuang Jing Road in Zhenjiang are believed to be the Zhuan-Ban Granaries owned by the Transport Department, which has a close relationship with the Zong—Ling Suo, a government office in charge of local armies' food and money supplies, of Huai—Dong area and the Da—Jun Granaries it administrated. The remain of one granary of the Yuan Dynasty excavated at this site is believed to be a Da-Jun Granary set upon the old site of a Zhuan-Ban Granary of the Southern Song Dynasty.
Key words: Song and Yuan Dynasties; Zhuan-Ban Granary; Huai—Dong Zong—Ling Suo; Da—Jun Granary
Research on the Kylin Figure in the Stone Reliefs of the Han Dynasty
SUN Chang-chu (Department of Art, Southeast University, Jiangsu, Nanjing 210096)
Abstract: The kylin figure in the stone reliefs of the Han Dynasty is valued as credible research data due to the inscription of "Qi Lin" on the margins. The figure of kylin takes the basic form of a deer but with a" ill " -shaped horn on the head. In some stone reliefs, the kylin is carved with wings on the body. The kylin figure extends the concept of going to heaven through the deer. To have a "山 " ~ shaped horn on its head upgrades the status of the deer as a god and makes it a symbol of the king. The wings carved on the body reflect the Sino—Western cultural exchanges.
Key words: stone reliefs of the Han Dynasty; Kylin figure; "山 "—shaped horn design; Wing design
Research on Jade and Gold Buckles of the Period Between the Han and Jin Dynasties
(Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433)
Abstract: The jade buckles in Shanghai Museum originated from the bronze ornaments of the northern nomads while the techniques and crafts were similar to the gold and silver wares of the same period. The material selection over jade and the design motifs and patterns, however, were to the taste of the Han people in the central part of China. During the period of the Han through the Jin Dynasties, the shape of jade and gold buckles transferred from the rectangular one to the one with oval front and square rear. The material, technique, and design of the buckles of this period reflect the cultural exchange and integration between the Han and Hu peoples.
Key words: Han to Jin Period; buckle; jade; gold ware
Digital and Physical Exhibition of Cultural Heritage in Museums
WANG Wei-hua (School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, Beijing,)
Abstract: Cultural Heritage includes both the tangible (material) and the intangible (immaterial). The exhibition methods of cultural heritage involve both the physical and the digital. A good exhibition system should meet the visitors' demand for real and authentic experiences of the exhibits. Digital exhibition plays an important role particularly in the transmission of the intangible (immaterial) heritage. It also provides a good approach for cultural heritage education to be promoted and for the public to acquire knowledge of cultural heritage. However, what is created through digital exhibition is the virtual reality, which may not fully realize the real and authentic experience that visitors are seeking. Therefore, it is suggested that digital methods may be applied in combination with physical ones in the exhibition so as to better meet the visitors' s demand and further promote the social interactions and cultural exchanges between people of various regions.
Key Words: cultural heritage; digital exhibition; physical exhibition; authentic experience; cultural exchanges
An Analysis of the Social Thought Behind the Ecomuseum Movement
LIU Shi-feng1 GAN Dai-jun2 (l.The Geological Museum of China,Beijing, 100034; 2.Chongqing Institute of Technology, Chongqing,401331)
Abstract: For the creativeness and inclusiveness of the concept, ecomuseums have achieved exuberant vitality, which brings about a global museum movement toward innovation. The content and influence of this movement indicate that the ecomuseum is essentially a representation of the spirit of times, behind which lie the social thoughts of ecology, nostalgia, identity seeking, and civil rights.
Key words: ecomuseum; social thought
Understanding and Thinking on the Practice of Developing Cultural Derivatives in the Museum
ZHANG Yi-ping (Nanjing Museum, Nanjingjiangsu 210016)
Abstract: The design and development of cultural derivatives is of vital importance in the museum's practice of cultural industry. It is, however, still at a starting stage in China, requiring further thinking and explorations concerning the concept, structure, funding, policies, models and so on. A full—fledged system for cultural derivatives with great variety, characteristics, advantages and competence is to be formed only when we can consider the specific situations of Chinese museums, learn the successful experience from foreign museums including their operation modes, innovate conceptual thinking, follow the principles for development, and practise in scientific approaches.
Key words: museum; cultural industry; cultural derivatives; creative development
The Concept and Practice of the Cultural Creative Industries Development in Museums in Taiwan
HUANG Mei-Xian (The Creative Industry Design Institute, Taiwan University of Arts, Taiwan)
Abstract: Cultural creative has been the economic power competed by developed countries and areas in recent years. Taiwan has actively developed cultural creative industries under the encouragement and support of local government, the advantages of strong cultural creativity and rich cultural resources. The results were striking, in which Taipei Palace Museum was in indicators status of museum' s cultural creative industries in Taiwan area. Taipei "Palace Museum" attracted and fixed a large number of audience through exhibition with well—designed, opening the cultural digital resources to society and training people' s aesthetic qualities. It also actively explored commercial opportunities, solicited company to develop cultural derivatives commodity and designed dining space combined with collection's cultural features. The creative industries of Taipei Palace Museum have obtained considerable output value and significant social effects.
Key words: museum; Taipei Palace Museum; cultural creative industries
Cultural Creativity in the Museum
LU Meng-meng (Nanjing University of the Arts, Nanjing,Jiangsu 210013)
Abstract: Today, with China's rapid economic development and the improving living standards, people' s demands for better life are no longer limited to the material level. The voice calling for richer cultural life is increasingly heard. As an important sector of cultural industries, museums have been increasing the openness and diversity and engaging audience participation and interaction. To embrace cultural creativity in museum practices is a major task, and challenge as well, facing the current cultural sectors in that museums are expected to play a more profound role in the society.
Key words: cultural; creative ; museum
The Evolvement of the Yushan School of Painting Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties
FAN Yin-hua (Art Institute of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009)
Abstract: HUANG Gong—wang, an outstanding painter from the Yuan Dynasty, was highly regarded for his landscape paintings as well as moral characters by scholars in Jiangnan area in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Huang also had a fundamental influence on the formation and development of the Yushan school of painting in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. However, in the Ming Dynasty after Huang Gong—wang' s time, no more painters from Yushan were well noted. When it came to the Qing Dynasty, the painting field lost the innovative spirit due to the great promotion of ancient painting styles made by the leading figures of the field WANG Shi—min and WANG Hui. In addition, affected by the social conduct at the time, the scholars and artists tended to be more concerned for fame and gain. All of these factors led to the gradual decline of the Yushan School of Painting.
Key words: HUANG Gong-wang; Yushan Painting School; WANG Hui