Cultural Heritage, Cultural Awareness, Cultural Construction: A Course of Chinese Cultural Heritage Conservation
(China Culture Relics News Press, Beijing 100007)
Abstract: Culture is both the crystallization of all communities adapting to the environment and society in specific time & space, and the records of Human's survival, therefore, culture heritage, the vectors of the past culture, is the wisdom resource of development instead of the burden. Since the reform and opening—up, our knowledge about the cultural heritage and its value has been developed from antique, cultural relics to the universal awareness of cultural heritage. To properly understand and solve the different culture and historical cultural heritage is not only the choice in Chinese own development process but also the premise of human's harmonious coexistence and co—prosperity in the era of globalization, information and all cultures' assembly.
Key words: cultural relics conservation; Chinese cultural heritage; world heritage movement; culture awareness; interculturality; New Axis Era
Authenticity and Integrity of Cultural Landscapes
WANG Yi1 Zheng Jun1 LV Rui2
(1.ICOMOS China, Beijing 100029; 2.Nathonal Theatre of China, Bejing 100055)
Abstract: Authenticity and Integrity are essential criteria for the inscription of world heritage sites. Cultural landscapes, as "combined work of nature and man", embody characteristics of authenticity and integrity. Studying the international achievements and ICOMOS assessment reports of cultural landscapes, analyzing the different features of authenticity and integrity of cultural landscapes inscribed in World Heritage List will be meaningful to cultural landscapes conservation.
Key words: cultural landscapes; authenticity; integrity
Discussion on the Conservation and Utilization Mode of Earthen Sites: A Case Study of Xi'an Area
(Guangzhou Municipal Institute of Cultural Heritage & Archeaology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510030)
Abstract: Conservation and utilization of earthen sites, with a large system and own features, should follow the principles of authenticity and readability which corresponds heritage conservation and heritage utilization respectively. The conservation and utilization modes of earthen sites in Xi'an can be divided into in—door mode and open—air mode. The in—door mode, effective to protect authenticity of the site itself but defective to protect environmental elements, is better applied to those excavated site to display many kinds of remains. Open—air mode, meaningful to protect environmental authenticity and improve readability when integrated with in—door mode, can be applied to those regular, symmetrical sites with simple shapes.
Key words: earthen sites; conservation of sites; conservation principles; conservation and utilization mode
Brief Excavation Report of Mound Tomb at Zhongxin Hill, Xiashu Town, Jurong, Jiangsu
Abstract: Nanjing Museum excavated a tomb in the early period of Spring & Autumn Period at Zhongxin Hill, Jurong, Jiangsu in February to April, 2009, and discovered a sacrificial artifacts group, a tomb and an architecture site. The artifacts of the sacrificial artifacts group were seriously broken consciously when unearthed, the tomb pit was digged in the piled up mound, The architecture site, located under the tomb and constituted by foundation trench and pillar hole, was the one with gable roof and a rectangular aisle. The relationship of the location among the architecture site, tomb and sacrificial artifacts group remains to be studied.
Key words: Xiashu Town, Jurong; mound tomb; early of Spring & Autumn Period; architectural remains
Excavation Brief Report of Large-Scale Mound Tomb in Spring & Autumn Period at Taowu, Jiangning, Nanjing
Nanjing Municipal Museum Jiangning Museum
Abstract: In 2008, Nanjing Municipal Museum excavated a large—scale mound tomb in the middle and late period of Spring & Autumn Period at Taowu Community, Hengxi District, Jiangning, Nanjing, and discovered two small—scale mounds, three tombs, grooves, pillar holes, altars, a sealed door, threshold—like remains a and six artifacts pits. A lot of artifacts were excavated. The mound tomb was so huge and the remains and artifacts were so rich that the tomb occupant must be a high—rank noble.
Key words: Taowu, Jiangning; middle and late of Spring & Autumn Period; mound tomb; groove; architectural remains
Brief Excavation Report of Warring States and Western Han Tombs at Xuliang Village, Jinhu County, Huai'an
Huai'an Museum Jinhu Library
Abstract: In 1999—2006, Huai'an Museum excavated eighteen rectangular earthen pit tombs at Xuliang Village, Jinhu County and discovered a certain number of funeral artifacts. Some of the tombs might be family tombs. Judged by the tomb structure and funeral artifacts shapes, these tombs could be dated from the late period of Warring States to the early period of Western Han Dynasty, only the tomb of Ml8 to the middle period of Western Han. Among these tombs, the occupant of M1 owned the highest status while the one of M18 should also have a certain status.
Key words: Huai'an; Warring States and Western Han; family tombs
A Preliminary Study on the Clan of Occupants of Tombs with Gable Roof
(History Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093)
Abstract: The tomb with gable—roofed was first discovered in the mausoleum of Yue State at Yinshan, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, then in the regions such as Minyue and Nanyue successively. The architecture form in mound tombs in the Jiangnan Area during Shang and Zhou Dynasties was also inferred to be the architecture with gable roof. The tomb with gable—roofed wooden outcoffin in Jiangsu and Zhejiang reflected the unique burial custom of Yue Culture. Based on the close origin of the clan with Yue people who went down to south, these tombs found in Minyue and Nanyue were supposed to continue such burial custom of Yue people, which was widely used rather than only possessed by nobles.
Key words: gable roof; clan; Wu and Yue Culture
On the Burial Round-Based Terra-Cotta Barns of Han Dynasty in Lingnan Area
(School of Sociology and Anthropology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275)
Abstract: The burial round—based terra—cotta barns unearthed from Han Dynasty tombs in Lingnan area were used as container for shelled food and could be divided into two types according to the different roofs. These barns in Lingnan area appeared in the middle of Western Han Dynasty and were only unearthed in Nanhai County. Such barns can be divided into five periods from the middle of Western Han Dynasty to the late of Eastern Han Dynasty, according to the features of themselves and the tombs.
Key words: Lingnan; Han Dynasty; burial round-based terra—cotta barn
From Grinding Stone to Present Inkstone: On the Preliminary Development of Inkstone's Shape
SHEN Xiao-xiao1 ZHANG Ju-zhong1 FANG Xiao-yang2
(1.Department of History of Science, University of Science and Technology of China,
Hefei, Anhui 230026; 2.College of Humanities & Social Sciences of Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049)
Abstract: The inkstone was invented in the unique demand of Chinese traditional calligraphy and painting. Its history could be traced back to the Neolithic Period, its predecessor was the primitive grinding stone, Thus, its original Chinese character is not "砚" (present inkestone) but "研" (grinding stone). The ancient literature, unearthed inkstones and ink materials showed the Chinese character's transformation from " 研 " (grinding stone) to "砚 " (present inkestone ) was in correspondence with the initial evolution of inkstone shapes in the Eastern Han Dynasty, which was directly connected with the improvement of shape of ink.
Key words: inkstone; shape; evolution
Explanations on WU Shan-zhi and DU Miao-yin's Epitaph of Ming Dynasty
(Department of Chinese Of National University of Singapore, Singapore)
Abstract: The newly found epitaphs of WU Shan—zhi and DU Miao—yin of Ming Dynasty were valuable documents which provided important information of Yu family and their descendants. Besides, the epitaphs also provided materials of the writers and calligraphers, and showed the social conditions related with Yu family in early Ming Dynasty.
Key words: Ming Dynasty; WU Shan-zhi; DU Miao-yin; epitaph
Clan Society and Regional Civilization: A Case Study of Liu Clan in Nanshan, Guichi, Anhui
(Southern Folk Culture Research Center of Chizhou College; Chizhou; Anhui 247000)
Abstract: From the Ming Dynasty to the Republic of China, Liu clan in Nanshan, Guichi, Anhui is a typical clan society in which people lived together with ancestral hall and genealogy. Plenty of cultural remains, such as ancient villages, ancestral hall, folk residences, classic books and art treasures, reflected the general situation of regional inhabitance and construction in Chinese traditional clan society, and the internal connection between clan society and regional civilization as well.
Key words: Guichi, Anhui; Liu in Nanshan; cultural remains; regional civilization
Understanding Audience & Serving Audience: An Analysis on the Questionnaire Survey of Audience in Wulin Branch of Zhejiang Provincial Museum
(China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310002)
Abstract: For the purpose of satisfying audience's multi — demands, improving quality and level of museum's service, Zhejiang Provincial Museum carried out a month—long feedback collection from in Wulin Brunch by two types of audience questionnaire : one was the Questionnaire Survey for the Audience in Wulin Branch of Zhejiang Provincial Museum and Zhejiang Revolutionary History Memorial Hall, which emphasized on the identities, information source and visit demands, the other was the Questionnaire Survey of Exhibition of Zhejiang History and Culture, which focused on the quality of display and the status of visit. The accurate and scientific information from the questionnaires will be helpful for the museum to set the goal for improvement and keep closer to the public.
Key words: Wulin Branch of Zhejiang Provincial Museum; audience; questionnaire survey
An Analysis of the Behavior and Requirement of Elder Visitors in The Capital Museum
(School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
Abstract: As China has entered an aging society, museum should improve the services for elder visitors in the light of their requirement and behavior characteristics. The related investigation and analysis in The Capital Museum shows: elder visitors prefer to visit museum with their family and relatives in the morning; most of them are interested in the history and art of the exhibits and willing to visit museum' s special exhibitions; enough rest seats, comfortable visiting environment, clean and well located toilets are top three visiting requirements of elder visitors.
Key words: museum; elder visitors; visiting behavior; requirement
New Acquisition and New Thinking on Mound Tomb Excavation: A Speech in the Achievement Briefing of Rescue Excavation of Mound Tombs in Jurong and Jintan, Jiangsu
(Center for the Study of Chinese Archaeology in Peking University, Beijing 100871)
Abstract: The achievement of rescue excavation of the mound tombs in Jurong and Jintan, Jiangsu in 2005 made a breakthrough on academic issues about one tomb in one mound, multi—tombs in one mound and centripetal structure. The excavation also set up a model for scientific operations on field archaeology. From the perspective of methodology and archaeological theory, the excavation and research of mound tomb remain to be deepen and intensified.
Key words: mound tomb; archeological achievement; multi—tomb in one mound
Three Topics on Mound Tombs in Jiangnan Area
(History Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093)
Abstract: The mound tomb was originally defined as the one constructed in a mound without tomb pit in Jiangnan Area from Shang Dynasty to early period of Warring States. The discovery in the latest two decades showed mound tomb possessed pit and lasted from Songze Culture to Han Dynasty. The mound tombs of Mahan in Korea had many similar characteristics with those in Wu & Yue districts, but it probably originated from those of Han Dynasty. The mound in Wu & Yue districts was piled up for one time or several times, and the artifacts were buried into mound at different time. The funeral ceremony of breaking and discarding the funeral artifacts consciously probably showed the artifacts shared the same lifespan with the tomb occupant.
Key words: mound tomb; Songze Culture; mound tomb in Mahan; burial custom
Discovery and Research of the Construction Remains Related with Mound Tombs in Jiangnan Area
(Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210097; Nanjing Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016)
Abstract: The architectural remains of mound tombs in Jiangnan Area can be divided into two types: the remains closely related with the tomb structure and the remains located under the tombs, while the former one can be divided into tomb pit facility, wooden outer coffin or tomb passage facility. The two types shared the same disciplines in shape evolution that from simple to complex and from rectangle to convex shape. The former type had a clear sacrificial function while the latter one the functions marking and sacrifice. The most important sacrifice ceremony in the construction process of mound tombs was firing and destroying the tomb construction. The discovery of these remains provided important materials for further study of social life and burial customs in Bronze Age in southern areas.
Key words: Jiangnan Area; mound tomb; architectural remains; sacrifice
Discussion on Han Mound Remains in Zhejiang
(Zhejiang Cultural Relics and Archaeological Institute, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310014)
Abstract: Mound remains of Han Dynasty in Zhejiang, with a close internal relationship with the mound tombs in Jiangnan Area before Qin Dynasty, were archaeological cultural relics mainly consisted of Han Dynasty tombs. The cultural features of such mound remains contains a number of cultural elements jointly owned in united dynasties, and also reflects the local characteristics in ancient Kuaiji cultural circle, which were different from those of the mainstream culture in central plains.
Key words: Zhejiang; mound remains of Han Dynasty; culture feature
Some Thoughts on Comparison of Heritage Conservation in China and the West: A Transcultural Perspective
(Cluster of Asia and Europe in a Global Context, Heidelberg University, Germany; International Association of World Heritage Professionals, Germany)
Abstract: In recent years, empirical practices on heritage conservation of western countries have brought a profound influence on Chinese heritage conservation. In a transcultural perspective, Chinese heritage conservation should take different system & objects and different understandings of "authenticity" into consideration while learning from the Western conservation system. So, China should value the spiritual elements and the social function of traditional cultural heritage, distinguish the cultural difference between China and the West, abide the international heritage conservation theory, then explores conservation theory and methods in accordance with China' s national conditions and cultural characteristics for Chinese heritage conservation.
Key words: heritage conservation; transculturality; authenticity
Inheritance and Development of Chinese Traditional Culture in Architecture Design
ZHOU Bo1 YANG Jing-ling2
(1. College of Artistic Design of Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009; 2. Design College of Nanjing Art Institute, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210013)
Abstract: Chinese traditional culture has a profound influence on architecture design,such as traditional layout and humanity thought. Architecture design should carry out the innovation based on inheritance, preserve valuable elements in traditional culture, creatively integrate the architectural design and traditional culture for the natural and harmonious effect so as to promote cultural relics protection.
Key words: Chinese traditional culture; architecture design; inheritance; development