Information Oriented Exhibitions: Raising the Quality of Chinese Museums
(Department of Cultural Relics and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027)
Abstract: The Information Oriented Exhibition takes the multifaceted quality of museums as its foundation. It deals with museum collection policy, research strategy, exhibition organization, exhibition communication technology and related education, and so on. Only each process is in line with the requirements of science can we hope to build exhibitions that are attractive, understandable, and capable of inspiring and educating. Therefore, by envisioning the Information Oriented Exhibition as a paradigm, we should establish a collection policy that will have "preserving social memory" as its core value; enhance the research done on museum collections to build stronger academic support for Information Oriented Exhibition; create a set of protocols, standards and a process of exhibition review to pave the way for exhibitions with higher quality communication abilities in the future; and deepen our commitment to effective communication and build exhibitions with rich public education functions, so as to raise the quality of modern museums in a fundamental way.
Key words: Information Oriented Exhibition, museum construction, museum quality
A Preliminary Discussion on Engineering Heritages
(China Academy of Cultural Heritage, Beijing, 100029)
Abstract: Engineering heritages are different from historical architectures and industrial heritages. Chinese ancient engineering heritages have special values of science and technology, synergy and evolution. However, it is difficult to identify their traces, define their natures and compositions, evaluate their authenticities, conserve and exhibit them, so that their values have long been neglected. Hence, to strengthen basic research and to try for policy support and cooperation are needed to achieve integrated conservation of engineering heritages.
Key words: engineering heritage; value; characteristic; integrated conservation
The New Idea of the Cultural Heritage Conservation: The Primary Discuss of the Trinity's Conservation Mode of Linear Cultural Heritage
(The College of History and Society of Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331)
Abstract: The linear cultural heritage is a new concept initiated in the field of international cultural heritage conservation in recent years. China boasts rich linear cultural heritage resources with wide coverage and lasting function, important historical significance and cultural meaning. Take the case of the Ming Great Wall and Beijing—Hangzhou Grand Canal, we should strengthen the research of heritage itself, practice the "trinity" conservation, a mode combined tangible, intangible heritage and Cultural Routes and cope with the impact of economic and urban development rationally so as to conserve various types of cultural heritage better.
Key words: linear cultural heritage; trinity; conservation mode
An Excavation Report of Tombs from Three Kindoms to Tang Dynasty at Laohuyan, Yinzhou,Ninbo
Ningbo Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
Yinzhou District Cultural Relics and Archaeology Administration Committee
Abstract: In 2009, Ningbo Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Yinzhou District Cultural Relics and Archaeology Administration Committee made an urgent excavation at Lixie Village, Laohuyan, Yin-zhou District, Ningbo City. 19 pieces tombs dated from The Three Kindoms to the Tang Dynasty were excavated, including 4 pieces with dynastic inscriptions, while 66 pieces of articles including celadons and hard potteries were unearthed. The relative information of tomb shapes, burial customs, tomb bricks with dynastic inscriptions provides typical standard and firsthand material for the tomb dating, tomb shape and burial custom research from the Three Kindoms to the Tang Dynasty in Ningbo area.
Key words: Ningbo Yinzhou Laohuyan; tombs from the Three Kindoms to the Tang Dynasty; tomb bricks with dynastic inscriptions
An Excavation Report of the Six Dynasties Tombs at Police Dog Research Institute,Yuhuatai District, Nanjing
Nanjing Municipal Museum Cultural Bureau of Yuhuatai District, Nanjing City
Abstract: Three pieces of the Six Dynasties tombs were excavated at Police Dog Research Institute by Nanjing Municipal Museum from April to June in 2010. Ml and M2, adjacent to each other, were tombs dated in the middle—late period of the Southern Dynasty and both belonged to a family graveyard. M3 was a tomb of the late period of Eastern Jin with lots of funeral articles. Moreover, the well—kept retaining wall and sacrificial altar in the front of M1, which were first discovered in Nanjing and even in the south area of China, were of great significance for academic study of funeral customs in the Six Dynasties.
Key words: Six Dynasties tombs at Yuhuatai District, Nangjing; retaining wall; sacrificial altar; funeral customs
Porcelains from Yuan Dynasty Cellar at Yongyang Town, Lishui County and Some Preliminary Knowledge
(Lishui Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211200)
Abstract: In 1975, a Yuan Dynasty cellar was discovered at Yongyang Town, Lishui, Jiangsu, 19 pieces of articles, most of which were porcelains including blue and white porcelains, Ge Wares, Longquan Wares and Shufu Wares, were unearthed. Comparative research revealed that these porcelains, with clear feature of the times, were produced at the late period of the Yuan Dynasty and were valuable information for the research of porcelain productive technique of the Yuan Dynasty. There were probably some relationships between the cellar and the chaos in Lishui at the end of the Yuan Dynasty.
Key words: Lishui; Yuan Dynasty cellar; porcelains at the late period of Yuan Dynasty
Rediscussion on Wooden Slips, Bronze Seals and Related Issues of Han Dynasty Tomb 5 at Huchang, Hanjiang, Jiangsu
(Xuzhou Museum, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221009)
Abstract: There are some problems in the interpretation of "Wen Gao Du(文告牍)" of Han Dynasty Tomb 5 at Huchang, Hanjiang, Jiangsu. The symbol "= " in the article was misinterpreted as punctuation mark":" and the character "Pi(辟)" was misinterpreted as "Cheng(承)". The feature of "Wen Gao Du" depends on whether the identity of the dead was revealed to the God of death. So, it is more accurate to name "Wen Gao Du" as "Gao Di Ce(告地策)". The interpretation of bronze seals of Han Dynasty should follow the way of palindrome. "Gong Si Kong(宫司空)" in the wooden slips is a proper noun which can be interpreted as real institution and official.
Key words: Han Dynasty Tomb 5 at Huchang, Hanjiang; wooden slips; bronze seals
Retrospect of the Research on "Six Dynasties Eaves Tiles" and Exploration for Several Issues
(History Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093)
Abstract: There had been sporadic eaves tiles of the Six Dynasties unearthed since the 1940s, but academia haven't established a real system of the Six Dynasties Eaves Tiles until the 1990s. So far, the Six Dynasties Eaves Tiles have become a hot topic among the archaeologists of many countries in East Asia. A series of issues have been widely discussed, including the shape, the type, the age, the feature, the craft, the distribution area, the chronology, the spread and the status, thereby an intercultural academic discourse system has been constructed. It will contribute to promote the subject to deepen quality by summarizing the discovery and research process of the Six Dynasties Eaves Tiles.
Key words: Six Dynasties Eaves Tiles; eaves tile with cloud pattern; eaves tile with human—face pattern; eaves tile with animal—mask pattern; eaves tile with lotus flower pattern
On the Lao Ding's (Fishing Tripod) Social Significance and Symbolic of Life and Death in Han Stone Relief
(Xuzhou Art Museum of Han Stone Cravings; Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221006)
Abstract: Lao Ding (fishing tripod), an image in Han's stone gravings, has rich connotation and important significance. It showed not only the change of kingship, but also the embodiment of social belief in the Han Dynasty. The process, fishing and losing of the tripod, reflected the meaning of life, the metaphor of soul rebirth and life revival. So, to a certain extent, the image reflected the thought of Tian Ren Gan Ying(interaction between heaven and mankind) by DONG Zhong—shu, popular religion and the subjective viewpoint toward life & death in the Han Dynasty.
Key words: Lao Ding (fishing tripod); rebirth; becoming immortal; the subjective viewpoint toward life & death
Jade Distribution and Content of the King's Tomb of the Southern Yue
CHEN Qun LIU Zhao-hui
(North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing 101601)
Abstract: 240 pieces of jades with unique shapes and exquisite crafts , were unearthed from the tomb ZHAO Mo(hu), the 2nd king of Southern Yue Kingdom in the Western Han and provided valuable materials for studying the jade usage system and the time style. Study reveals that the tomb owner and the human sacrifice all possessed their own jades. The tomb owner's burial jades contributed to show off the power and wealth, and to persue immortal while the human sacrifice's decoration jades to strengthen their noble or humble identities. Thus it can be inferred that the latter ones aimed at showing the tomb level instead of protecting the body.
Key words: tomb of Southern Yue Kingdom; jade; style
On the Triangular-rimmed Bronze Mirrors with Gods and Beasts Pattern
(China Imperial Examination Museum, Taizhou, Jiangsu 225308)
Abstract: There are three versions about the place of origin of triangular—rimmed bronze mirrors with gods and beasts pattern: produced in Wei, produced in Wu or produced for special purpose. All these versions are defective. We should treat the feature, place of origin and development of such mirrors from dialectical perspective and carry on a comprehensive investigation in order to complete various versions. With the time passed and situations changed, the feature of such mirrors and the identity of producers maybe changed as well.
Key words: triangular—rimmed bronze mirrors with gods and beasts pattern; version of Wei mirrors; version of Wu mirrors
On the Dunhuang and Turfan Manuscripts of the Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties
FENGPei-hong BAI Xue
(Institute of Dunhuang studies of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730020)
Abstract: A number of manuscripts of the Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties were discovered in Dunhang and Turpan. Most were Buddhist scriptures while a few were Taoist scriptures, Confucian Classics and Letters. The commemoration inscriptions , attached at the Taoist and Buddhist scriptures with the era and rich historical information, boasted great academic value and reflected that most manuscripts, copied in the south, flowed into Dunhuang and Turpan through the traffic route between the Northwest and the Southeast. These information revealed that religious cultural exchanges and communications between the Northwest and the Southeast regions in the Eastern Jin, Sixteen Kingdoms, and Southern and Northern Dynasties.
Key words: Dunhuang; Turfan; manuscript; Eastern Jin; Southern Dynasties
The Relationship Between Practice and Theory of Museum: Perspective from Museum Exhibition
(Minnan Cultural Research Institute of Jinmen University, Taiwan, China)
Abstract: As a science of the post—processual, Museology has to build up its mode and theory after generating function because museums around the world are the real places where the human beings and what happened in their environment are shown by collection. Chinese museums have the same operation, management and use goal although establishment of Chinese museum was the "import". So, how to achieve the inheritance of cultural heritage information, analyze the concept for exhibition based on collected data of the audience's knowledge, attitudes and needs of exhibition theme and gradually complete the exhibition design and production, this "exhibition evaluation" methodology combined theory and practice should be the best paradigm for establishing Chinese own Museology. It is the professional competencies what we must spare no effort to obtain.
Key words: pose—processual; exhibition evaluation; museography; Museology
Study on the Definition of Digital Museum From the Social Development and the User Requirements
(The Palace Museum, Beijing 100009)
Abstract: At present, it is generally believed in the cultural heritage circle that the digital museum is a website built by museum and can provide users of digital tangible and intangible heritage services. From the perspective of social development and the needs of users, the definition of digital museum could be summarized as follows: digital museum is normally a website provided by the museum, for achieving the heritage resources to equitable access for the whole society and meeting the maximization of individual requirements, provide digital tangible heritage and intangible heritage services.
Key words: digital museum; heritage resources; digital; social development; users requirements
Investigation on Pungnap Tosung: The Original Capital of Baekje
(Department of Korean History, College of Humanities, Hanshin University, Osan, Korea)
Abstract: Pungnap Tosung in Seoul, which has been excavated since 1997, was speculated as Hanam Wiraesung, the original capital of Baekje, judged by the large scaled wall and lots of unearthed remains and relics consistent with the capital. Many unearthed articles made by neighbor countries could confirm that Baekje maintained exchanges with them. Especially dozens of glazed potteries and potteries with coin pattern dated from Western Jin to Song in Southern Dynasties showed extensive and close communications between Baekje and China in terms of ceramic transactions, religion and thought after the third century, and provided new materials and knowledge for Baekje history and the history of communications with China.
Key words: Baekje; Pungnap Tosung; Hanam Wiraesung; glazed pottery; pottery with coin pattern; eaves tiles
Discussion on the Age of Pottery with Coin Pattern Unearthed in Korea
(Archaeological Department of Peking University, Beijing 100871)
Abstract: A group of large potteries with coin pattern were unearthed in Pungnap Tosung of Korea. According to the existing research, these potteries maybe related to the royal family of Baekje ,they were probably input in the middle and late periods of Eastern Wu, or in Western Jin, but impossibility in Eastern Jin. So the construe -tion time of Pungnap Tosung can be dated back to Eastern Wu.
Key words: Pungnap Tosung; pottery with coin pattern; Eastern Wu
Interpretation on bricks inscriptions of Songsanri Tomb 6, Gongju, Korea
(Department of History and Archaeology, Inje University, Pusan, Korea)
Abstract: There was a record of communication between Baekje and Liang in Southern Dynasties carved on the brick excavated in Songsanri Tomb 6, Gongju, Korea. Interpretation attached to fonts and contents of inscription deucedly. Based on the comparison of calligraphy and search of related materials, the inscriptions can be interpreted as "Liang Xuan Yi Wei Shi Yi (梁宣以为师矣)", thus the nationality and social status of person in charge of constructing tombs can be speculated.
Key words: Songsanri Tomb 6; inscription; interpretation
Quiet and Lonesome Streams and Mountains: HUANG Gong-wang's Paiting Art and His "Xie Shan Shui Jue"
(Nanjing Arts Institute, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009)
Abstract: HUANG Gong—wang, a famous landscape painter, was the top one of the "Yuan Si Jia"(four master painters of Yuan Dynasty). His work of Fu Chun Shan Ju 7u(The Picture of Fuchun Mountain) was the classic piece during the transitional period of literati's paintings in the Yuan Dynasty. Its context, simple and fresh, plain and artless, reflected the innovation based on traditional Chinese landscape paintings and constituted a complex context of Huang's landscape painting. His literature of Xie Shan Shui Jue (Landscape Painting Tips)was the theoretical crystallization of his in—depth study on the landscape painting techniques.
Key words: HUANG Gong-wang; Fu Chun Shan Ju 7u(The Picture of Fuchun Mountain); Xie Shan Shui Jue (Landscape Painting Tips); innovation