【Author】 Hans Manneby1 WANG Qi-zhi2(1.ICOM Sweden;2.Nanjing Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016)
【Abstract】 High-quality management and operations are the necessary conditions to meet the demands and requirements from visitors and users. The improving of management level, including a series of steps and activities such as goal management, staff management, financial management, public relations and marketing, buildings and facilities, must be taken into consideration particularly in order to improve quality in museum management.
【Key words】 museum； management； high quality；
Situations,Problems and Countermeasures: A Study On Exhibition, Education and Public Services of Museum
【Author】 LU Jian-song LI Ying-zi (Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433)
【Abstract】 The main concept of modern museum management is exhibition, education and public services. After the implementation of "opening for free" policy, it became a major issue for museums to improve the exhibition levels, educational capabilities and public services. In order to solve the above problems, we should refer to the experience of museum management and development of foreign countries as well as develop a relevant assessment index system. In addition, promoting the exchanges and cooperation between museums, extending the exhibition and educational activities and strengthening the development of cultural products are also the effective measures.
【Key words】 museum； exhibition； education； public services；
Curator of Museum Exhibition: Scholar, Connoisseur, Exhibition Organizer: An Interview with Curator James C.Y. Watt
【Author】 James C.Y.Watt1 MAO Ying2(1.Department of Asian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA; 2.Nanjing Museum, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016)
【Abstract】 Curator of museum exhibition has been proved to be one of the key factors of the successful exhibition especially the one with special subject. Mr. James C.Y. Watt, Brooke Russell Astor Chairman of Asian Art Department of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, also a world famous curator of exhibition, taking "The World of Khubilai Khan" as the example, points out that: Museum curator of exhibition should have all of the qualities and abilities of a scholar, a connoisseur and an exhibition organizer with good knowledge of History, Art History, Culture History, Cultural Relics and Museology, etc; He should organize and coordinate the exhibition in the whole process from exhibition designing, works choosing and loaning to exhibition opening, research publishing and even the accompanied educational program implementation so as to ensure the success of the exhibition; Thus, museum will surely promote academic research, fulfill educational responsibilities and serve the public better.
【Key words】 curator of museum exhibition； quality and ability； "The World of Khubilai Khan: Chinese Art in the Yuan Dynasty"； James C.Y. Watt；
Archaeological Work and Site Park: Two Orientations Concerning Construction of National Archaeological Site Park
【Author】 XIA Xiao-wei (Hongshan Archaeological Site Museum, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214145)
【Abstract】 In recent years, NASP(National Archaeological Site Park) has been proved to be a revolutionary mode in the conservation of Great Sites. In the process of NASP construction, on the one hand, we must correctly understand its orientation, handle the relationship between "archaeological site" and "park" and ensure its characteristics and development trend, on the other hand we should also correctly grasp the orientation of archaeological woks in NASP, which will surely benefit the scientific conservation, in-depth research and effective exhibition of the archaeological sites and promote Chinese modern Archeology.
【Key words】 National Archaeological Site Parks； archaeological work； site park； orientation；
On Great Sites Conservation and Archaeological Site Park Construction: A Case Study of Daminggong Palace Site Conservation
【Author】 ZHANG Guan-xin(The Institute of Protection and Management of Daminggong Palace Site, Xi’an, Shanxi 710016)
【Abstract】 The Archaeological Site Park ,a mode of cultural heritage conservation with Chinese characteristics, is a beneficial exploration combining the Great Sites conservation with cultural heritage conservation theories home and abroad and the most practical and feasible means of Great Sites conservation as well. The construction of Daminggong Palace Site Park, one of the first group of National ones, based on scientific planning and archaeological material, has carried out a scientific and whole protection and display as well as formulated green programs in line with local conditions. Now the conservation has gradually matured and provided a useful reference to Archaeological Site Park construction, especially the experience in organizational planning and operational management.
【Key words】 Archaeological Site Park； Daminggong Palace Site； conservation； management；
A Brief Excavation Report of Xijin Ferry Site in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu
【Author】 Zhenjiang Museum Zhenjiang Archaeological Institute of Ancient City
【Abstract】 During 2008-2010,Zhenjiang Museum and Zhenjiang Archaeological Institute of Ancient City carried out an archaeological exploration and excavation on the site of Xijin Ferry and discovered a peninsular-shaped site of ancient ferry. Stone banks, ports, official architectures, bricks & tiles with inscription of "Guan"(official) and articles of all kinds were unearthed and excavated, which provided significant materials for the research of ancient communication history and ancient ferries.
【Key words】 Yangtze River； ferry； site of Xijin Ferry；
Brief Report of Princess Baoqing’s Tomb and the Relative Analysis on Ming Dynasty Princess Tomb System: Also on the Epitaph of ZHAO Bo-rong
【Author】 GONG Ju-ping(Nanjing Municipal Museum, Nanjing,Jiangsu 210004)
【Abstract】 The tomb of Princess Baoqing, the youngest daughter of ZHU Yuan-zhang, the First Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, was discovered at Sanshan of Nanjing in September,2008.The tomb structure, composed of front & back brick rooms and top coupons, together with the green glazed articles unearthed in front of the tomb, provided a new material for the princess tomb system of Ming Dynasty. The tomb was destroyed and only an epitaph, recording Princess Baoqing’s life, was found outside the tomb. The collected epitaph of ZHAO Bo-rong, grandson of ZHAO Hui who was the husband of Princess Baoqing, also provided new materials for studying the history of ZHAO family.
【Key words】 Ming Dynasty； Princess Baoqing； princess tomb system； epitaph of ZHAO Bo-rong；
Explanations on Emperor’s Son-in-law ZHAO Hui’s Epitaph and Relative System of Ming Dynasty
【Author】 LIU Shao-hua(School of History, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872)
【Abstract】 The discovery of the epitaph of ZHAO Hui, emperor’s son-in-law, is very helpful to research ZHAO Hui’s life and the system of emperor’s son-in-law of the Ming Dynasty. Containing a lot of information, such as the year of ZHAO Hui’s death, the selection process of emperor’s son-in-law, and parts of his duties, as well as those unwritten in historic documents, the epitaph can correct the errors in historic documents about ZHAO Hui, and help to research the selecting standards, the duty and descendants’ privilege of emperor’s son-in-law.
【Key words】 Ming Dynasty； ZHAO Hui； epitaph； system of Emperor’s son-in-law；
Correction About MU Chang-zuo’s Tomb and Relative Issues: From the Epitaph of MU Chao-fu’s Wife CHEN
【Author】 SHAO Lei(Nanjing Municipal Museum, Nanjing,Jiangsu 210004)
【Abstract】 In 1979,Nanjing Municipal Museum excavated a family tomb(No.79JJSM4) of the MU family of the Ming Dynasty in the southern slope of the Jiangjunshan Hill in the southern suburbs of Nanjing. The tomb occupants have long been considered to be MU Chang-zuo and his wife, the former one being a ninth generation descendant of MU Ying, King of Qianning.However, the interpretation of the remaining part of the epitaph found in the tomb revealed that the tomb occupants should be MU Chao-fu, an eighth generation descendant of MU Ying, and MU Chao-fu’s wife CHEN. Since CHEN ever played a key role in the dramatic change of MU Family’s fortune from rise to decline,the contents concerning the life of CHEN as well as MU Chao-fu and his sons in the epitaph offers new materials for the study of the MU Family of the Ming Dynasty.
【Key words】 the MU family of the Ming Dynasty； tomb of MU Chang-zuo； MU Chao-fu’s wife CHEN； epitaph；
Exploration on Historical Context and Cultural Value of Xijin Ferry
【Author】 LIU Jian-guo(Zhenjiang Museum, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212008)
【Abstract】 Xijin Ferry was an important ferry in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in ancient times. The relative historical data get involved with historical events, ferry construction and official institutions. The archaeological excavation of Xijin Ferry Site revealed its historical features and evolution. Its cultural value was reflected in the importance to communication history, the integrity of the site space and the uniqueness of cultural landscape.
【Key words】 Xijin Ferry； historical context； cultural value；
On the Grassroots Organization in Ming Dynasty City Wall Bricks Inscriptions
【Author】 YANG Guo-qing(The City Wall History Museum of Ming Dynasty, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008)
【Abstract】 Information kept on the Nanjing city wall bricks is helpful to the study of workers organization of early Ming Dynasty. The unearthed dated bricks with reign titles and inscriptions of "Jun Gong Fu "revealed that the building workers were organized by the method of "Jun Gong Fu" and the initial style is imperfect. After the 10th year of Hong Wu Reign, the organization developed into the one by "Jia" system and got well organized from the officials to the basic manpower. This form didn’t work until the 17th year of Hong Wu Reign. Compared with the brick inscriptions found in the Central Capital Fengyang, it can be proved that this basic organization might imitate the perfect system recorded in the military bricks inscriptions.
【Key words】 Nanjing city wall； Ming Dynasty； bricks inscriptions； grassroots organization of workers；
A New Research on Galle Trilingual Stele
【Author】 A.Chandima1 WU Yuan-lei2(1.School of History and Culture of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100; 2.Institute of Literature History Philosophy of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100)
【Abstract】 Found in Galle, Sri Lanka in 1911,Galle Trilingual Stele recorded ZHENG He’s donations to a Buddhist temple in Sri Lanka in Chinese, Tamil and Persian respectively. Now the Chinese inscriptions have been interpreted while the others can be translated into Chinese based on the previous English translations, among which the Persian inscriptions were seriously eroded and hard to interpret. Originally located in Dondra ,Sri Lanka, the stele was moved to Galle for preservation by the Chinese residents in Galle. Furthermore, Xi Lan Shan锡兰山in the Chinese inscriptions should be the country Sri Lanka rather than today’s Mount Adam.
【Key words】 ZHENG He； Galle Trilingual Stele； inscription interpretation；
Essential Factor Combination and Exhibition Layout of Restored Exhibition in Ancient Architecture
【Author】 XING Zhao-hua(Guangzhou Academy of Social Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510410)
【Abstract】 It is necessary to return the essence of the ancient architecture restored exhibition to an original state that people and objects resonate. Generally, we should conclude and combine the essential factors in order to find out the best intersection. Otherwise, we could only give priority to the most important essential factors and pay appropriate attention to others. The exhibition layout of the ancient architecture restored exhibition is restricted by the original design lines in ancient architecture; therefore, it shows a superimposed effect. There are two kinds of most common exhibition layouts: single unidirectional one and massive connected "central radiation formula" one.
【Key words】 ancient architecture； restored exhibition； essential factor combination； exhibition layout；
From Information Communication to Attention Management: Changes of Modern Museum Exhibition Theory and Relative Thinking
【Author】 TANG Zhen-quan(Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065;Museum of the Nanyue King of the Han Dynasty, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510040)
【Abstract】 Museum, as an informal educational institution, is entitled to spread culture and infuse information to visitors. In the traditional information communication mode, museums give priority to the contents and the quantity of communication. However, with the coming of the information society, attention has become a scarce resource. Museum has to find a breakthrough from the attention managing mode so as to realize its social and economic benefit in the increasingly severe competition of attention.
【Key words】 museum； attention； communication；
Preliminary Discussion on Unearthed Hongwu Reign Porcelains from Ming Dynasty Noble Tombs in Nanjing: Also on Other Unearthed Porcelains
【Author】 HUO Hua(Nanjing Museum,Nanjing,Jiangsu 210016)
【Abstract】 A number of important porcelains in the Hong Wu Reign were unearthed from nobles’ tombs of the early Ming Dynasty and their descendents’ burial sections in Nanjing. Study reveals that the porcelains unearthed from the family tombs reflected relations with the experience of tomb occupants, porcelains from the noble tombs varied from plum vase to jar over time, and were generally products of folk kilns, Longquan Kiln and Cizhou Kiln played important roles in the country ceramics industry in the early Ming Dynasty.
【Key words】 noble tombs； early Ming Dynasty； unearthed porcelain；
Imperial Kiln Porcelains in Ming Hongwu Reign and Related Issues: Analysis from the Perspective of Handed-Down Articles
【Author】 LU Ming-hua(Shanghai Museum, Shanghai 200003)
【Abstract】 The porcelains of imperial kiln in the Hongwu Reign, collected home and abroad with different features but the same basic style, have got correct confirmation based on the discovery of Yuqichang Site in Jingdezhen. The key factor of setting up of the imperial kiln has proved to be ZHU Yuan-zhang’s worship to the sacrifice. The blue and white porcelains of imperial kiln in the Hongwu Reign, compared with those in the Yuan Dynasty, show features of inheritance and innovation but lackness of free creation.
【Key words】 Hongwu Reign； imperial kiln； handed-down articles；
On Porcelain in Ming Hongwu Reign from Jingdezhen Imperial Kiln in Qing Palace Collectioin
【Author】 HUANG Wei-wen CAI Yi(The Palace Museum, Beijing 100009)
【Abstract】 The Palace Museum collects 67 pieces of porcelains of the Hongwu Reign in the Qing Palace collection inherited from the Ming Palace. Their production technology and decoration, with both the style of the Yuan Dynasty and the characteristics of imperial kiln porcelain in the Ming Dynasty, show the distinctive features in the transitional stage from Yuan to Ming Dynasties. Based on the historical background of porcelain production in the Hongwu Reign in Jingdezhen, the study of Hong Wu Reign porcelains as well as their location in the Qing Palace, these porcelains can be proved to be produced in Jingdezhen imperial kiln of the Hongwu Reign for royal court, reflected that the porcelain style in Jingdezhen was in transitional stage from Yuan to Ming Dynasty, which has provided the most persuasive and valuable handed-down materials for researching porcelains of late Yuan and early Ming Dynasties.
【Key words】 Hongwu Reign of the Ming Dynasty； the Qing Palace collection； porcelain of imperial kiln；
Modern American Art Museums and Their Visitors
【Author】 Kym S.Rice1 ZHENG Yi 2(1、The George Washington University, USA; 2、Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433)
【Abstract】 For more than two decades American art museums have been engaged in looking for different methodologies to understand the public’s relationship with art, and to improve their experience in the museum. Methods includes experiments in exhibition labels and texts writing and interpretation, the addition of computer interactive (both within the gallery and in near proximity) as well as participatory art activities, journal and poetry writing and other constructivist programming. The Denver Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Detroit Institute of Arts have undertaken important visitor studies conducted by staff and professional evaluators to examine their audiences and programs, and then considered the results carefully in order to craft innovative and more responsive exhibition installations. Whether the studies will truly revolutionize art museum exhibitions remains to be seen.
【Key words】 American art museums； visitor； exhibition； study；
Exploration on the Psychology of Chinese Calligraphy and Painting Appraisal Science
【Author】 NI Jin(School of Arts, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096)
【Abstract】 The goal of calligraphy and painting appraisal lies in distinguishing the truth and false. As one kind of subject response psychology, the appraisal can be regarded as a quiet exchange in minds and a quiet dialog between the appraisal and painter. In the appraisal process, the appraisal’s psychic mechanism should be the same to the painter’s. The psychic mechanism of calligraphy and painting appraisal includes psychological feature, topographic model, mental disposition, psychological einstellung and the sub sense perception in the mental structure and so on questions. Investigating these questions would help to explore a way for the calligraphy and painting appraisal moving toward the science from the experience.
【Key words】 appraisal； psychology； graphical representation； einstellung； sub sense；