From the Cultural Landscape to the Cultural Landscape Heritage (Part Two) (7)
Key words: Cultural Landscape; Cultural Landscape Heritage; conservation;
Abstract: In China and the West, the cultural landscape concept formed in a long period accumulation and based on a solid social foundation. The Western countries, through the comprehensive research after the industrial civilization in 19th century and the environmental concern in the mid 20th century, had promoted the concept to an idea and then put forward the concept of cultural landscape heritage at the end of the 20th century. Chinese relevant research, while being motivated by the international achievements in conservation idea and practice, mainly benefited from the breakthrough of modern geography, regional social and historical culture study, regional archaeology, environmental archaeology, landscape archaeology, etc, and made the idea of cultural landscape and the relevant heritage improved day by day. In the 21st century, the conservation of the cultural landscape heritage has reached an agreement worldwide and got success in many countries. Meanwhile, Xi’an Declaration, “Hangzhou Forum” and the application potentialities of Chinese cultural landscape heritage have respectively heralded and indicated the breakthrough and great contribution of China in this field.
Education, Service, Diversified Development: An Interview with Curator Zhou Gong-xin(13)
Key words: education; service; diversified development; ZHOU Gong-xin;
Abstract: During the visit to Taibei Palace Museum at invitation in October 2009,Mr.GONG Liang, Curator of Nanjing Museum, on behalf of The Editorial Board, made an interview with Curator ZHOU Gong-xin and held talks on the issues of museum exhibition, education, public service, digital construction and cultural industry, etc. Curator ZHOU Gong-xin expressed her opinions and ideas as follows: Museum should perform educational functions, its exhibition should aim at the education and its relative activities should meet the visitor’s requirement to sever the public; Museum should also make full use of the modern science & technology, speed to the digital construction, promote the cultural creative industry, encourage the diversified development and enhance the cultural exchange I order to offer a service of high quality, thus construct itself to be the favorite destination of the public.
On the Strategies for Chinese Cultural Landscape to Apply for World Heritage(18)
Key words: World Heritage List; Chinese Cultural Landscape Heritage;
Abstract: THE WORLD HERITAGE LIST: Filling the Gaps: An Action Plan for the Future(Gap Report) and What is OUV(OUV Report) are two important documents in the field of World Heritage preservation in recent years. Gap Report sums up new framework concepts of comparative analysis and identity on the World Heritage values: Typological Framework, Chronological-Regional Framework and Thematic Framework. Our Report revises the definition of outstanding universal value of World Heritage and gives more prominence to the “universality ”and “sustainability” than before. According to the requirements of the two documents and the characteristic of Chinese civilization, it’s more suitable for China to select “Cultural Landscape” as an application type for World Cultural Heritage. We should stand on the height of human civilization and culture to rediscover the value of heritage, strengthen the research and application of the “Cultural Landscape”.
From the Cultural Landscape in Heritage to Cultural Landscape Heritage(24)
Key words: Cultural Landscape; Cultural Heritage; conservation;
Abstract: Cultural Landscape Heritage, which embodies the Chinese traditional philosophy of Tian Ren He Yi(harmony between human beings and nature)has been a hot spot in the field of cultural relics recently. Featuring the core of landscape, Cultural Landscape Heritage should possess both attractive natural form and aesthetic emotion intension, such as Mount Tai, Hani Terrace and Chinese traditional gardens, and reflects the beauty both of nature and culture. It still needs many effort stop reserve and inherit Cultural Landscape Heritage.
Discussion on Archaeological Methods of Historical Period: Base on the Owner Key words: Identification of Han-Wei Period Mausoleum in Xigaoxue Village(28)
Historical Archaeology; Methodology; Mausoleum of Cao Cao;
Abstract: In 2009,Henan Provincial Cultural Bureau announced the Han-Wei period mausoleum, excavated in Xigaoxue Village in Anyang County, was Mausoleum Gaoling of Cao Cao, King Wu of Wei Kingdom. The news triggered a bitter argument immediately and soon surpassed the owner identification and even involved scientificity and authority of archaeology. Based on the thoughts of the arguments, historical archaeological methods should be explored in several aspects, such as archaeological chronology, cross certification of the unearthed documents and the handed-down documents, the principle of “The only evidence is unreasonable”, etc. thus will surely be beneficial not only to the discipline construction, but also to the suppression of the doubts about the owner identification and even about the archaeological research.
The Yuan Jia 16th Year's Tomb of Liu Song Dynasty in Chun Cheng, Jurong, Jiangsu(37)
Key words: Jurong; Yuan Jia 16th year; tomb;
Abstract: The tomb of Yuan Jia 16th year(A.D.439) is a convex-shaped brick tomb with top voucher and a joint one with two wooden coffins A brick with reign title and two bricks with cursive script were found. Funerary objects are porcelains, wooden lacquered articles, pottery, bronze, silver and glass wares, and so on. Glass cup, celadon pot with chicken-head, silver plate and two bricks with cursive script were appraised as the first-level of national cultural relics. Especially the glass cup, which was imported from the Sassanian Dynasty, is particularly of great value.
Two Six Dynasties' Tombs at Fengzhou, Quanzhou, Fujian(44)
Key words: Fengzhou; tombs; the Six Dynasties; celadon;
Abstract: A salvaging excavation of two tombs of the Six Dynasties was carried out in Fengzhou Town, Nan'an City, Fujian Province in January,2008.All of the unearthed relics were local produced celadons which reflected that the firing techniques had been mature in Quanzhou during the Southern Dynasties. The five - tubes jar was discovered in Southern Fujian for the first time. These findings provide precious materials for studying the evolution of the Six Dynasties tombs in Quanzhou.
On the Clay Figurines of the Southern Dynasties Unearthed from Nanjing Hongtuqiao and the Related Issues(48)
Key words: Hongtuqiao; Nanjing; clay figurines of the Southern Dynasties; Yanxing temple; producing technology; Baekje; the Northern Dynasties;
Abstract: A number of clay figurines were unearthed from Nanjing Hongtuqiao, a site related with Yanxing Temple of the Southern Dynasties. It was the first discovery in Jiankang district of the Six Dynasties. Viewing from the producing technology, such as the process of painting, glazing and firing, these figurines are similar with those of the same period made in Baekje and share the same producing technology while show clear difference with those of the Northern Dynasties, which suggests the Buddhist culture of the Southern Dynasties ever had significant influence on Baiji.
On the Owner and Age of the Tomb of Prince Chu of Western Han at Beidongshan(59)
Key words: Beidongshan; the Western Han; tomb of Prince Chu; tomb owner;
Abstract: Comparing with the tombs at Shizishan and Tuolanshan from the construction, forms and funeral objects, the tomb of Prince Chu of Western Han at Beidongshan reached a higher stage of development, so its owner shouldn't be LIU Ying-ke, Prince Chu of the second generation, but probably the fourth named LIU Li, or the fifth named LIU Dao. And it is more probably LIU Li.
Correction and Supplement to the Owner of the Tomb with Stone Animals at Qilinpu in Nanjing(63)
Key words: Qilinpu; Nanjing; stone animals on the spirit road; tomb owner; Southern Dynasties;
Abstract: Now materials prove that it isn't Ruiling, based on the record of Jiatai Wuxing Zhi. Through the historical record about one anonymous mausoleum of Liang in Southern Dynasties located at 35 lis east to Shangyuan County in Jingding Jiankang Zhi, a new view may be put forward that the stone animals at Qilinpu were affiliated to this anonymous Liang mausoleum. Then it may be presumed the tomb owner is XIAO Yuan-ming, a puppet emperor of Late Liang Period.
On Si Xue of the Wu Bamboo Slips Unearthed at Zoumalou(66)
Key words: the Bamboo Slips Unearthed at Zoumalou; the system of Xue Li; Ju Si Xue; Huang Bu;
Abstract: Combining the previous research and the new materials, a point of view might be put forward as follows: Ju means recommend with the purpose of recommending a person of Si xue to become a li; Si Xue, recorded in the Huang Bu, is a continuity of the system of Xue Li of Qin & Han Period and represents the identity of a person who studied the lesson of how to become a Li could be recommended to be a Li later. Before being recommended, Si Xue used to live in the Qiu as a Bai Yi. They could move to another place after becoming a “Li” while still keeping the identity of “Si Xue” and could be further recommended.
A Study on Jinshan Edition of Yi He Ming(77)
Key words: Yi He Ming; comparative study; Jinshan Edition;
Abstract: The full-text of Yi He Ming(The Epitaph of A Crane) written by a monk of Jinshan Temple in the Tang Dynasty(called Jinshan Edition) was discovered by DIAO Yue in the Northern Song Dynasty and handed down from that time. However, Jinshan Edition had been misunderstood and discriminated for a long time. With the comparative study, Jinshan Edition could be confirmed as the full text one closest to the original epitaph of Yi He Ming, and it also reflected the profound thoughts and sophisticated literary talent of the author.
On the Application of the Digital Watermark Technology in Digital Museum(81)
Key words: Digital Watermark Technology; Digital Museum
Abstract: With the development of the digital museum, people are paying more and more attention to the copyright protection of digital exhibition articles in museums. For this reason, multiple techniques of digital watermark are applied comprehensively in the digital museum. The digital watermark mainly works in copyright protection, integrity and authenticity of cultural relics in the digital museum.
On the Development of Chinese Buddhism of Wu Kingdom(86)
Key words: Three Kingdoms; ZHI Qian; KANG Senghui; granary jar;
Abstract: Wu Kingdom is a critical phase in the development of Chinese Buddhism: the archaeological findings demonstrate that Buddhism was already widely spreading among the people, Buddhist ZHI Qian was dissatisfied with the previous translations and re-translated a number of Buddhist texts, Kang Senghui was the master of Four-part Vinaya and compiled the laity commandments. All in all, the dissemination of Buddhism in Wu Kingdom should be further investigated.
Buddhist Factors in Tombs of Southern Dynasties (91)
Key words: Buddhist factors; Southern Dynasties;
Abstract: It's an important phenomenon that Buddhist factors appeared in tombs both in Buddhist and funeral culture. During the Southern Dynasties, Buddhist factors were prevalent in tombs while their symbolic meanings were of different importance. Analysed the 20 pieces of tombs, the Buddhist factors can be concluded and listed as follows: Buddha, monks, Flying Fairies, Dancing maidens, support people, lions, pagoda and other symbolic articles.
On the Buddhist Temples and Pagodas in the Capital of the Six Dynasties (101)
Key words: the capital of the Six Dynasties; the Buddhist temple; the Buddhist pagoda;
Abstract: There is still no systematic research on specific structures of the Buddhist temples and pagodas in the capital of the Six Dynasties. The basic elements of the Buddhist temples in the Six Dynasties were temple gate, Buddha palace, schoolroom, Chan-chapel, pagoda, refectory, etc. The Buddhist temples in Eastern Wu period maintained the pattern of Chinese traditional square courtyards, whose central part had the Buddhist temple or the Buddhist pagoda with multilayered pavilions. During the period from Eastern Jin to the beginning of Southern Dynasties, two types of Buddhist temples, the “flat style” or “ regular style” and the “mountain forest style” or “free style” emerged in the capital of the Six Dynasties. Their popular patterns were similar to the structures of the Buddhist temples of 6th and 7th centuries which were discovered or preserved in Korea and Japan. The Buddhist pagodas of the Six Dynasties were mostly the full-timberwork type which prevailed in the South China with their own specialties. The five-layered pagoda in the Falong temple and the three-layered Pagoda of the Faqi temple in Japan maintained the basic characters of the full-timberwork type of the Buddhist pagodas of the capital of the Six Dynasties.
On the Picture of Long Zhou Da Shen Bao Xiang (114)
Key words: Shui lu Fa hui Rites; shuilu painting; Taihe County; fork custom;
Abstract: Shui lu (land & water) painting is a kind of painting about religious figures that was usually hung in the ancestral halls during the Shui lu Fa hui Rites. The Picture of Long Zhou Da Shen Bao Xiang with the theme of the Chinese Taoism can be attributed to LAI Shang-yuan, a folk painter in the period of Qianlong Reign of the Qing Dynasty, and is now kept in Hainan Museum. It reflected the custom of Duanwu and Zhongyuan Festivals in Taihe County of Jiangxi Province and can supply important information to the study of Chinese religious history and folk painting art.
On the Compilation Features, Academic Value and Practical Significance of Encyclopedia of Nanjing: Also on the Compilation and Value of the Regional Encyclopedia(117)
Key words: regional encyclopedia; Encyclopedia of Nanjing; compilation;
Abstract: The compilation and writing of Encyclopedia of Nanjing gets a upper hand in grasping the compilation law of Encyclopedia. The book focuses on the development and changes of Nanjing after the liberation especially after the reform and opening-up policy, and displays regional, comprehensive, scientific, normative, practical, elegant characteristics and so on. Its publication is a breakthrough in the local literature compilation history and offers a solid foundation for the establishment of local discipline of “Nanjing xue”.
Summary: Forum on Academic Periodical, Museum and Cultural Heritage; Symposium of the 25th Anniversary of Southeast Culture (122)
Key words: Southeast Culture; 25th Anniversary; academic symposium; summary;
Abstract: The Academic Journals •Museums •Cultural Heritage Forum & Southeast Culture's 25th Anniversary Symposium sponsored by Nanjing Museum was held on 13 to 14 June 2010.Nearly 40 experts and representatives from academic journals of cultural heritage and museology made speeches and discussions on three issues:1.how to strengthen self-construction of publication under the new situation,2.the leading role of the academic journals in the field of museum construction and cultural heritage,3.development of the academic journals in Network Age. The participants put forward many constructive ideas and opinions, and exchanged experience of running their own Publication. The symposium will promote academic journals to be better platforms and leading roles in museum construction, cultural heritage conservation and the construction of related discipline.