LU Jian – song,
Museum Development in Need of Professional Consultation (6)
SHAN Ji – xiang,
From “Cultural Landscape” to “Cultural Landscape Heritage” (Part one) (7)
【Abstract】In China and the West, the cultural landscape concept formed based on a long – term accumulation and a solid foundation. The western countries, through the comprehensive research after the industrial civilization in 19th century and the environmental concern in the mid 20th century, had promoted the concept to an idea and then put forward the concept of cultural landscape heritage at the end of 20th century. Chinese relevant research, while being motivated by the international achievements in conservation idea and practice, mainly benefited from the breakthrough of modern geography, regional social and historical culture study, regional archaeology, environmental archaeology, landscape archaeology, etc. and made the idea of cultural landscape and the relevant heritage improved day by day. In the 21st century, the conservation of the cultural landscape heritage had reached an agreement worldwide and got success in many countries. Meanwhile, Xi’an Declaration, “Hangzhou Forum” and the application potentialities of Chinese cultural landscape heritage have respectively heralded and indicated the breakthrough and great contribution of China in this field.
【Key words】Cultural Landscape; Cultural Landscape Heritage; conservation
●Theory on Cultural Heritage Conservation
SHU You – chun,
Practice and Thoughts about the Delimitation of the Two Lines of the Cultural Heritage Conservation Units (19)
【Abstract】The delimitation of the two lines (the preservation scope and the constructive control area) of the Cultural Heritage Conservation Units faces some troubles and difficulties. To ensure the safety of the conservation units, the two lines’ delimitation must go forward together. In the meantime, we should properly deal with the relation among the unit, the scope and the control area, the relation between the unit’s built – up area and its covering area, the relation between the unit’s boundaries and its environment, etc. Furthermore, several features in the delimitation should be discriminated, such as the legal flexibility of the delimitation, the particularities of the delimitation of sites and tombs, the identity of texts and maps, and so on.
【Key words】Conservation Unit; preservation scope; constructive control area; delimitation of the Two Lines
On the Delimitation of Preservation Scope and Constructive Control Area for the Cultural Heritage Conservation Units (23)
【Abstract】The preservation scope as well as the constructive control area of the Cultural Heritage Conservation Units are the legal region delimited and issued by government. But, owing to the limitation of the times, the delimitation of the preservation scope has some shortages to certain degree and need to take some measures to adjust in the planning stage. Those measures involve more specific conservation requirements which will help to subdivide the grades of control area of construction and make the management more effective. Especially for large scale conservation units which located in developed areas, with the support of conservation planning, corresponding measures will help to reduce the cost of management and lighten the burden on management.
【Key words】Cultural Heritage Conservation Unit; conservation planning; preservation scope; constructive control area
Jiangsu Provincial Institute of Archaeology, Chuzhou Museum of Huai’an City,
A Brief Excavation Report on the Accumulation Pit of Fragments of Longquan Kiln at Hexia Site in Chuzhou District, Huai’an City, Jiangsu Province (27)
【Abstract】During Sept. 2008 – Jan. 2009, Jiangsu Provincial Institute of Archaeology and Chuzhou Museum discovered an accumulation pit of green – glazed fragments of Longquan kiln dating to the Chenghua Reign of the Ming Dynasty at Hexia site in Chuzhou District of Huai’an City, Jiangsu Province. a large number of broken Longquan celadons and fragments were unearthed. The fragments accumulated in the Chenghua Reign of the Ming Dynasty. Most of them were produced in the early – middle period of the Ming Dynasty while only a few ones in the late Ming Dynasty.
【Key words】Hexia site in Chuzhou; Longquan kiln of Ming Dynasty; green – glazed fragments; accumulations
HUO Hua, CHEN Jin – hui, HAO Ming – hua, HAN Jian – li,
On Longquan Celadon Fragments from the Accumulation Pit at Hexia Site in Chuzhou District, Huai’an City, Jiangsu Province (38)
【Abstract】A large number of celadon fragments of Longquan kiln were unearthed from an accumulation pit at Hexia site in Chuzhou District, Huai’an City of Jiangsu province. research shows that a few fragments were produced in the late Yuan Dynasty while the others between the Hongwu Reign and the early Chenghua Reign of the Ming Dynasty. There are 11 sorts of glaze colors such as green, light cyan, etc. and at least 40 pieces of wares such as bowl, plate, stove and so on. Some of them were imperial wares of Longquan of the Ming Dynasty. The discovery reveals that the production of Longquan developed to the peak once again in the Ming Dynasty and is of great significance for the study of water transport of the Ming Dynasty and the history of Chuzhou District.
【Key words】the green – glazed celadon of Longquan Kiln of the Ming Dynasty; Hexia Town of Chuzhou District; water transport; imperial wares
HUANG Wei – wen,
On the Celadon of Longquan Kiln of the Ming Dynasty Collected in the Qing Palace (46)
【Abstract】The celadon of Longquan kiln of the Ming Dynasty, collected in the Qing Dynasty Palace, should be the Ming Palace collection and reflect the feature of the imperial wares in the early Ming Dynasty. These wares are mainly ritual implements and exhibits with the remains of the Yuan style. The related literature and newly excavated materials at the kiln site show that Chuzhou kiln of Longquan, just like the Jingdezhen kiln, also produced a certain number of imperial wares with royal designs in the early Ming Dynasty, some were the products from Fengdongyan kiln of Longquan. Hence, the early Ming Dynasty should be a peak period of Longquan kiln.
【Key words】celadon of Longquan kiln in the Ming Dynasty; imperial ware; the Qing Palace collection
The Excavation and Initial Understanding of the Tomb of the Ming Dynasty Eunuch YANG Qing (52)
【Abstract】The tomb of Yang Qing, excavated in October, 2005 at the eastern foot of Hanfu hill, Jiangning District, Nanjing, is a high ranking tomb with a unique shape. According to historical records, Yang Qing, the tomb owner, was a eunuch in the favor of Emperor Yongle, got an important position during the Yongle & Xuande Reigns and even took part in the seven journeys to the West led by ZHENG He. The epitaph explains the reasons for his favored life in the court of Emperor Yongle and verifies his role in the seven journeys. The unique burial way of hanging the coffin with iron chains might reflect the approval to such Taoism – style way of the eunuchs who believed in Daoism since the Song and the Yuan Dynasties. What’s more, the calligrapher and cutter of YANG Qing’s epitaph were all famous artists of his time, which also proves that Yang Qing still enjoyed a powerful life even after he was demoted to Nanjing.
【Key words】YANG Qing; epitaph; the seven journeys to the West Led by ZHENG He; hanging the Coffin with iron chains; Taoism
YANG Li – bing,
On CHEN Xuan’s Family Epitaph of the Ming Dynasty Collected in Jiangning Museum (63)
【Abstract】There are four pieces of epitaphs of CHEN Xuan’s family collected in Jiangning Museum. The owners are two of CHEN Xuan’s sons CHEN Zuo and CHEN Juzhuang and their spouses. CHEN Xuan and his family ever occupied very important positions in the Ming Dynasty, but there were only few records of CHEN Xuan’s descendents in Ming Shi, so the epitaphs can surely be regarded as valuable materials to the study of the history of CHEN Xuan’s family.
【Key words】CHEN Xuan; family epitaph
CHEN Zhong – yu,
On the Prehistoric Settlement Sites of Taiwan Alpine Areas: A Case Study of Qubing Site (70)
【Abstract】There are more than 2,300 pieces of Prehistoric sites in Taiwan, most of them are located in the creek and river valleys and stretched into the alpine areas. The sites, with a scale of several hectares, are ethnic settlement sites. Scholars haven’t reached an agreement yet on the reason why ancestors of Taiwan moved into the alpine areas. Some thick it’s due to the pressure of growing population, while others believe that to escape from some diseases is the main motivation. My opinion is based on four reasons: first, migrants always tried to seek the adaptable environment they had used to; second, ecology – oriented determination of the social structure of ethnic groups; third, to flee from the miasma; finally, the expansion of the population.
【Key words】alpine areas of Taiwan; Prehistoric sites; Prehistoric settlement; the Qubing site
FEI Ling – ya,
A Preliminary Study on the Jade Ear – Pendants of the Neolithic Age in the Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (77)
【Abstract】According to the development and evolution of the shapes, the jade ear – pendants of the Neolithic Age unearthed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River can be divided into the original type, transitional type and mature type, which indicates their own trajectory in the stages of their emergence, development and evolution. The rank and scale of the graves buried with jade – ear pendants reflect that jade ear – pendants gradually developed from the decorations to the symbols of identity and status.
【Key words】the lower reaches of the Yangtze River; the Neolithic Age; jade ear – pendants
On the Braid in Ancient China (83)
【Abstract】To braid the hair, as a kind of special hairstyle in ancient China, ever reflected the custom of the nomadic people and was different from that of the Hua Xia people who traditionally wore the hair in a coil. Such difference mainly caused by the different living condition & environments and different lifestyles. It was thought that only after the Jin Dynasty did people in central plains begin to braid their hair. But in fact, literature and archaeological materials show that the Hua Xia people ever had their braided in early period.
【Key words】braid; chignon; hairstyle
●New Opinions on Museology
GONG Liang, CAI Qin,
Museum and the Public (88)
【Abstract】Nowadays museum has developed to be a public organ which represents the public benefits, dedicates to the public service and regards the public as not only its service target but its lifeblood. In most activities, museum always keep very close relations and share the same problems with the public. Therefore, with the help of the overall comprehension of the basic terms, we should research and analyze the inner mechanism, the public and its actions, discover the cultural link of museum and the public, combine the inner and the outer facts of the museum’s cultural propagation, take the public demand as the guidance for museum development, speed up the socialization of the public service research achievements so as to promote the public service of the museum.
【Key words】museum; the public; visitor; cultural rights
WU Xiang – li,
Intercourse between Museum and School Education: On the Practice of American Old Sturbridge Village Museum (94)
【Abstract】Social education is an important function of museum while the primary & secondary school students are the focus of target groups, so to combine with the school education is an important task of the museum education. American Old Sturbridge Village Museum has been adhering to the intercourse with school education for 60 years and has accumulated rich experience in innovative practice of the primary & secondary school education, which has been acknowledged all over the world. Those experience, such as developing intercourse between museum and school education, making full use of resource advantages, organizing all kinds of activities and providing thoughtful services, is of great significance for the school education of Chinese museums.
【Key words】museum education; primary & secondary school education; school education; Old Sturbridge Village Museum
LIU Jia – ying,
Media Advantage of Museum in Narratological Perspective (100)
【Abstract】The unique media advantage of museum and its exhibitions may be brought to light based on the study from the narratological perspective. As one kind of the information dissemination media in the modern society, museum should know how to establish and develop its own advantages to optimize the information reception and construction, so as to win a place in the public.
【Key words】media; structuralism; narratology; museum exhibition
ZHENG Li – jun,
On the Design of Decorative Pattern of the Han Stone Relief (104)
【Abstract】The frame, ground floor, and some tableau on Stone relief of the Han Dynasty are not only for eye – pleasing demand but generally display the typical feature of decorative pattern and reflect the idea of people’s desire for immortality and auspicious, the philosophy of Zhong (loyalty) & Xiao (filial piety), the thought of beautifying the ideal life and the social custom of luxuriant burial.
【Key words】stone relief of the Han Dynasty; decorative pattern; design
ZHAO Yong – wei,
Han Stone Relief of Xuzhou and Chinese Opera (109)
【Abstract】The Han Dynasty is an important time of Chinese opera. Many pieces of the Han stone relief unearthed in Xuzhou display some artistic images, such as the figure of Yuewu, the figure of Jingji and the figure of Daguizhuyi, and exhibit the vivid performing art in the Han Dynasty. Some of them even show the link with today’s Chinese opera.
【Key words】relief stone of Han Dynasty; Chinese opera
HUANG Jian – qiu,
Commentary on Overseas Research of Polished Stone Axes and Adzes (113)
【Abstract】Great achievements have been acquired home and abroad on the research of the polished stone axes and adzes. The ethnological studies have shed light on their usage as productive tools, sacrificial and betrothal gifts as well as a show of wealth. Microwear analysis shows that they were usually used in logging, butchering and leather – tanning. Typological studies bring to light the truth that some damaged axes or adzes had been remade into smaller ones for further use. Archaeological experiments reveal that a stone axe owned a quarter of efficiency of an iron one and the service lives of stone axes or adzes ranged from one and a half years to 17 years. The microscope observation and experimental analogue are effective approaches to research the function of the polished stone axes and adzes.
【Key words】polished stone axe; polished stone adze; function; usage; remake; service life
●Remarks on Art in “Ten – bamboo Study”
FENG Yu et al.,
On the Symbolic Meanings of the Background – Images in Buddhist Sculpture (118)
【Abstract】The background – images are most significant components in Buddhist imaging. Nevertheless, they do not serve as ornamental designs in general but are confined and informed respectively by Buddhist doctrines and the native culture. In the context of Chinese traditional culture, while the circular figures which are the most prevailed ones of the background – images symbolize fulfillment, smooth – going as well as incorporation, the textures of flame, lotus, flying fairy, various plants and so forth not only constitute the critical ingredients of Buddhist sculptures, but represent the Chinese culture.
【Key words】Buddhist sculptures; background; images; symbolic meanings
XI Ke – zhen,
Brief Study on the Documents of the Republic of China Collected in Nanjing Museum (123)
【Abstract】Nanjing Museum boasts a great number and quite a few sorts of documents of the Republic of China with precious historical value. But, because of the particular material and inappropriate conservation these documents have been in the process of serious damage. Research shows that long – term preservation can be achieved by the effective protection of deacidification and reinforcement.
【Key words】Nanjing Museum; documents of the Republic of China; publication type; damage causes; methods of preservation