Great Site Conservation Lies in Harmonious Coexistence (6)
MENG Xian – min,
Review & Renovation: Promoting the Scientific Development of Great Sites Conservation: Re – exploration of the Thoughts of Great Sites Conservation (7)
【Abstract】Since the foundation of New China, especially since the Opening – up and Reform Policy, Chinese Great Sites conservation work has been developing unceasingly and have made great contribution to the exploration of the origin of Chinese civilizations, while the definition getting clearer, the team growing steadily, the rule tending to be perfect, the work winning initiative and the multi – courses co – cooperation being enhanced more and more effectively. On the basis of these achievements, the further study and re – exploration on “The modern system for the research & display of the National Great Sites conservation and the site districts construction” will surely promote the scientific development of the conservation undertaking.
【Key words】Great Sites conservation; scientific development; review; thoughts of conservation; re – exploration
●Theory on Cultural Heritage Conservation
FU Qing – yuan,
The Sensitive Problems of Archaeological Excavation and Conservation of the Great Sites (18)
【Abstract】The great sites as an important component of Chinese cultural heritage have been incorporated into the key work of the Chinese cultural relics conservation. The rapid development of national economy and urbanization process has brought great impact on the Chinese great sites. To conserve great sites, a Salvage First criterion must be established at first and a multi disciplines cooperative must be depended on during the archaeological excavation. Besides, we should execute national laws and rules strictly, insist on coordinated development of the sites and surrounding environment as well as establish a scientific way of Sustainable Conservation.
【Key words】the great sites conservation; multi disciplines; cooperative; sustainable conservation
HUANG Ke – zhong,
The Problems from the Scheme of Relic Sites Conservation (22)
【Abstract】An amount of useful exploration to the technical means of relic heritage conservation has been conducted at present in China, but there are still universal problems: such as general defects of the lack of basic data in pre – reconnaissance and value evaluation of the conservation scheme, related ideas and principles which are not reflected fully or disjoined with concrete measures of sites conservation, comprehensive overall planning which is ignored how to deal with the relationship between conservation and display. There also lack enough coordination between the makers of the conservation programs and the management site, etc. Thus, an extensive cooperation of multi subjects must be carried out by social circles to solve the problems together in the future conservation of relic sites.
【Key words】scheme of relic heritage conservation; universal problems; suggestion
Museum of Jiangning District, Nanjing,
A Brief Excavation Report on the Tomb on the First Year of Tian Ce of the Eastern Wu at Jiangning District, Nanjing (26)
【Abstract】The tomb in the first year of “Tian Ce” of the Eastern Wu at Shashigang village, excavated in 2008, which is only 100 meters away from the tomb in the first year of Tian Ce of the Eastern Wu at Lengjiaoshan village, excavated in 1979. The structure of the tomb is front – rear brick chamber with the plane showed double “bulge” (凸) shape and more than 20 fine cultural relics, such as celadon ware, copper ware etc., are unearthed. The pattern and epigraph of the two tombs are completely identical, so it proves that their owners are all related to Marquis NI. The tomb in the first year of Tian Ce at Shashigang village is the fourth large – scale brick – chambered tomb in the later period of the Eastern Wu and it will make important academic evaluation to the study of distribution of high – grade noble tombs in this region and funeral customs of Eastern Wu period.
【Key words】Shashigang village; the tomb of the Eastern Wu; the first year of Tian Ce; Marquis NI; celadon ware
Nanjing Municipal Museum,
A Brief Excavation Report on Tomb 11 at Guojiashan in Nanjing (32)
【Abstract】Tomb 11 at Guojiashan was excavated by Nanjing Municipal Museum and celadon wares, coppers and copper coins were found in it. The tomb is dated in Western Jin Dynasty according to the shape of the tomb and the unearthed objects. This excavation has provided new materials for studying Six Dynasties of Nanjing area.
【Key words】Nanjing Tomb 11 at Guojiashan
Museum of Jiangning District, Nanjing,
A Report on Six Dynasties Tomb on No.15 Road, Binjiang Development Zone (36)
【Abstract】Three Six Dynasties tombs were found in Mulong village. Judging from the tombs shape and unearthed relics, tomb 1 and tomb 2 were built in the Mid – Eastern Jin Dynasty, and tomb 3 was built in the first year of Jianheng in Eastern Wu Dynasties. The tomb owner is Miu Cheng, a clerk of the prime minister. The scale of these three tombs is not large, but there is important academic value in them. The brick columns found in four corners in the tomb 1 and tomb 2 were firstly found in Eastern Jin tombs in Nanjing area. The mirror with god and beast, the jar with dragon head, the basin specially for washing Chinese brush and pot for spitting, all these are valuable. A land deed is an important material for studying the land system of that time.
【Key words】Mulong village, Tongjing, Jiangning; the tombs of Eastern Jin Dynasties; the tombs of Eastern Wu Dynasty; the first year of Jianheng; land deeds
WANG Zhi – gao et al.,
Surmising the Tomb Owner of the Eastern Wu at Shangfang Village, Jiangning District, Nanjing: Concurrently Discussing the Clan Tombs of the Eastern Wu (41)
【Abstract】Recorded in literature, Fuchun marquis, SUN Jun’s tomb and coffin were destroyed. Analyzing the heaped celadon jar from the excavated tomb, the time of this tomb might be the late period of SUN Hao. So the tomb owner couldn’t be SUN Jun, but may be a clan king and his two imperial concubines. The clan tombs of Eastern Wu may be divided into three types, equivalent to royal mausoleum, king’s tomb and marquis’ tomb.
【Key words】Shangfang, Jiangning; Tomb of the Eastern Wu; SUN Jun; SUN Hao; king; clan tombs
Li Zhong – bin,
An Analysis on the Shape of Eastern Wu Tomb at Simenkou, Ma’anshan and a Primary Discussion on the Type of the Accompanied Tombs in Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River in Six Dynasties Period (51)
【Abstract】A tomb classified into Eastern Wu Period located at Simenkou (TEWS) was excavated professionally. It’s the first tomb discovered in Ma’anshan region which buries dead body in the side – room. The particular academic value of the TEWS is that it shows its unique shape of accompanied tomb. According to the burial information, combined with the original records of excavation, the type of TEWS is analyzed and some new views are drawn in the paper. Meanwhile, based on the existing historical data, through reviewing the literatures on the accompanied tombs ranged on the lower – middle reaches of the Yangtze River belonged to Six Dynasties period, some typological research and analysis on the special burial custom of the accompanied tombs on the same region and same period is proposed as the conclusion of the paper.
【Key words】Ma’anshan; simenkou; accompanied tombs; type of tombs
WU Gui – bing,
The Grave System of Jin Dynasty and the Transition from Western Jin to Eastern Jin (58)
【Abstract】After Zhou system and Han system, there was Jin system, which was the important content of the evolution of Chinese ancient grave system. Jin system in archaeology was related to the ritual system of Jin Dynasty. The process of establishment and implementation of the ritual system in Jin Dynasty had reflected the social transition of the Han – Wei – Jin period. Luoyang was the capital of Western Jin. The burial system, which was manifested by the Luoyang factors in the Jin tombs of Luoyang, should have some relationship with the New Ritual System carried out in Western Jin. The burial system in Luoyang factors should be the Jin system following the Han system. The grave cultural factors summarized in the Eastern Jin were called Jiankang Factors at Jiankang (Nanjing, the capital of Eastern Jin). The Luoyang Factors and the Jiankang Factors were the main cultural connotation of Two Jins Dynasties.
【Key words】the Grave System of Jin Dynasty; Ritual System of Jin Dynasty; Luoyang Factors; Jiankang Factors; the transition from Han Dynasty to Jin Dynasty
Yi Xi – bing,
A Comprehensive Analysis on Southern Dynasties Land Deeds (64)
【Abstract】There are 22 land deeds of Southern Dynasties found in southern China. According to the text, these land deeds can be divided into three types, which have distinctions in terms of content, writing format and manner. Overall, these land deeds contain intense elements of Taoism, reflect the wide implications of Taoism to the underlying society, on the other hand, the text contents of these land deeds also reflect the life and death idea and bury custom in the society of Southern Dynasties.
【Key words】Southern Dynasties; land deeds; Taoism; bury custom
YANG Xiao – chun,
On the Names of the Stone Animals on the Spirit Road of Southern Dynasties’ Mausoleums (71)
【Abstract】As to names of the stone animals on the spirit road of Southern Dynasties’ tombs, scholars have different opinions. With literal and archaeological materials, this paper presented the views that the stone animal with one horn should be called Tianlu, with two horns should be called Pixie and which without and horn should be called winged lion.
【Key words】Southern Dynasties; stone animals on the spirit road; Tianlu; Pixie; Qilin; lion
SONG Zhen – hao,
On the Names of Horned Statuaries of Southern Dynasties Mausoleums: By Investigating the Rule of the Number of Horns (77)
【Abstract】By carefully investigating on 11 sites of horned statuaries of Southern Dynasties tombs, a rule of left one with 2 horns and right one with single horn can be concluded. With the main criteria of S – shaped body, we can divide the 11 sites to two categories: Category – A imitates the prototype of Han Dynasty style which has 4 toes in each foot; Category – B imitates the prototype of lions of Southern Dynasties which has 5 toes in each foot. Though researching on archaeological documents about the statuaries in Song Dynasty, and correcting Zhu Xizu’s arguments, it can be summarized that a 2 – horn statuary is called Tianlu and 1 – horn statuary is called Pixie.
【Key words】statuary of Southern Dynasties; rule of horns; Tianlu; Pixie
YANG Yu – zhang, ZHANG Ju – zhong, LU Hou – zu,
The Research Progress in Fanchang Kiln, Anhui Province (83)
【Abstract】Fanchang Kiln was the earliest Chinese bluish – white porcelain kiln. It had great significance for the research on origin of Bluish – white porcelain and white porcelain in southern China. Fanchang Kiln was discovered as early as 1950s and Archaeologists investigated and excavated it for many times. However, most of these archaeological materials hadn’t been published systematically all along. In 2002, Archaeologists excavated this site formally and acquired a lot of archaeological materials. We summarized the research progress in Fanchang Kiln about its characterization, period, property and so on. We also believed that it would be very valuable for academia to promote a further study on Fanchang Kiln.
【Key words】Fanchang Kiln; bluish – white porcelain; research progress
ZHAI Yan – yan,
The Rise and Fall of Fanchang Kiln (88)
【Abstract】This article is divided into three parts on the history of “Fanchang kiln”. At first, it reveals the process of the discovery and public awareness of Fanchang kiln, based on the discussion of Fanchang kiln in Kejiachong. Secondly, it expounds the relationship between famous paintings and Fanchang kiln. In this part, it indicates the comparison of the bluish – white porcelain made in Fanchang kiln with the products of its neighboring sites in the same period, as well as the three reasons of the development of this bluish – white porcelain, such as market demand, technology transferring and its advanced technology. In the end, it analyzes the three major reasons of its decline, namely the coarseness of porcelain clay’s quality, the economic lag due to frequent war and the weak defense to flood.
【Key words】Fancheng kiln; Kejiachong; bluish – white porcelain; cognition; rise; decline
DONG Jian – li,
On Five – tubed Vase (93)
【Abstract】Five – tubed vase is the media between the heaven and the earth for the ancestors. It originated in the Eastern Han Dynasty and prospered in Song Dynasty. Its role developed from funerary objects to the symbolic Appliances furnishings. The symbolic significance is relative with Chinese traditional culture, Yin and Yang and the Five Elements – water, fire, wood, metal, and earth. This means auspicious.
【Key words】five – tubed vise; develop; Yin and Yang and the Five Elements
●New Opinions on Museology
WU Qi et al.,
Some Thoughts on the Digital Technology to Assist the Exhibition of Museum (99)
【Abstract】The technology of digital exhibition and interaction is an important auxiliary method in museum exhibition. It improves tourists’ visiting interests and enhances their experience, which makes the personalized tour possible.
【Key words】digital technology; museum; exhibition and display
An Analysis on the Characteristics of the Digital Display in Museum (105)
【Abstract】Display is an important way for museum to communicate with visitors. Due to poorer understanding of the characteristic of the digital display in museum, it is possible for museum staff going astray into wrong ways during the application of digital technologies in museum display. On the one hand, the digital technology function is ignored, only for sprinkling some traditional display with few elements; on the other hand, the digital technology function is exaggerated, resulting in the put – the – cart – before – the – horse show of digital technologies with too many digital elements. This paper provides basic concept of digital display in museum, and analyzes the non – sequentiality, multi – sensibility, interactivity, virtuality, extendibility of space – time of digital display differing from traditional display in museum, which would be reference for designing and implementing of digital display in museum.
【Key words】Digital display; non – sequentiality; multi – sensibility; interactivity; virtuality; extendibility of space – time
●Special Subject: Technology for Great Sites Conservation
ZHANG Hui et al.,
Research on the Conservation in Laboratory and Field Test Regarding the Zhejiang Tianluo Mountain Site (110)
【Abstract】The physical and chemical properties of the site soil were analyzed. The results indicated that soil granular structure was loose, suggesting that the soil aeration was very good, however, which could cause crack and collapse. The soil samples were reinforced by CB consolidating agent in the laboratory, a series of tests on the treated and untreated sample was carried out including water resistant, PH value and shearing strength, the results showed that the treated samples possessed excellent performance in water resistant, compared with the untreated samples, and the cohesive strength increased obviously, implying that CB method could increase the adhesion between soil granules. The field experiment was tested by CB consolidating agent, the results suggested that the performance of the example sites treated by CB was better in reinforcing effect than that by the methods used of another three research institutes.
【Key words】Tianluoshan Site; consolidation and conservation; CB consolidation materials
CHEN Guang – li et al.,
An Overview on the Soil Site Preservation of Xiongjiazhong (114)
【Abstract】This article gives the overview of Xiongjiazhong burials, its geology and soil conditions and analyzes the main problems in the preservation. Through the comprehensive preservation, the breaking up and collapse of the sacrificial pit, the chariot pit and various relics are prevented. The preservation work of Xiongjiazhong gives good reference for technology development of the site preservation in South China.
【Key words】Xiongjiazhong; soil site in South China; site preservation
●Remarks on Art in “Ten – bamboo Study”
ZHANG Hen – wu,
Textual Research on “Tingyulou Writing Scripts” of Suzhou Shizilin (119)
【Abstract】”Tingyulou Writing Scripts” was compiled by ZHOU Yu – li from Yunnan in Qing Dynasty, and was engraved by MU Wen from Jinling and LIU Hong – zhi from Wanling. Volume 1 involves the works of CHU Sui – liang, YAN Zhen – qing, and CAI Xiang. Volume 2 involves the works of SU Xun, SU Shi and SU Che. Volume 3 involves the works of MI Fu and ZHAO Meng – fu. In this article, there are brief introduction to the style of these writing scripts and transference of the engraved steles.
【Key words】landscape garden; Calligraphy; engraved stele; writing scripts
Searching for the Elapsed Folk Memories of Chinese Festivals: An Overview of Chinese New Year Paintings Produced in Xiaojiaochang, Shanghai (122)
【Abstract】The style of early Xiaojiaochang (the Old Armor) wood engraving Chinese New Year Painting of Shanghai was deeply influenced by Taohuawu the Chinese New Year Picture of Suzhou and the works of paintings in art shops were mostly copycats of Taohuawu paintings at that time. At the end of Qing Dynasty, Xiaojiaochang stone plate Chinese New Year Paintings were extremely popular for its innovative topics, colorfulness, and inexpensiveness with good quality. The wood engraving Chinese New Year Paintings began to move toward the end. The emergence of the Chinese New Year Paintings on Calendar created a special golden era of the Chinese New Year Paintings in the history. It is the introduction of modern Western printing technology which completely changed the fate of the Chinese New Year Paintings. The transmutation of Xiaojiaochang Chinese New Year Paintings clearly presents the history of the demise of the traditional Chinese New Year Paintings.
【Key words】Xiaojiaochang (the Old Armor); the Chinese New Year Painting; the technology of stone plate printing; regional culture with distinctive Shanghai characteristics