关键词: 岳石文化 海岱地区 人文地理格局 东夷
KEY WORDS : Yueshi culture Haidai area culture- geographical pattern Dongyi ethnic group
ABSTRACT : The Yueshi culture period was a dynamic epoch when the culture-geographical pat tern in the Haidai cultural area went through a great change . In the incipient phase the sites of the Yueshi culture sharply decreased in comparison with those of the Longshan period, their dist ribution was un-even, and the Dongyi ethnic group migrated from place to place. Later, the Yueshi culture entered a period of steady development, when various cultural types in the Haidai area seem relatively even in distribution, and exchanges between the Yueshi and other cultures took place mainly in confluent areas of borderland. In the early Shang period , the settlements of the Shang culture in the territory of the Yueshi culture were merely a few inserted points and there was a close relationship and alliance between the Shang people and the Yi people. At the late stage of the Yueshi culture, as Shang power advanced east-wards, the Shang culture gradually entered the hinterland of the Haidai cultural area and replaced the Yueshi culture, while the latter constantly shrunk back , which led to a great change of t he culture-geographical pattern in the Haidai area .
海岱文化区主要以今山东省为中心,包含苏、皖两省淮河以北及豫东的广大地区,简称海岱地区或海岱区。岳石文化是海岱文化区内一支非常重要的考古学文化,同时期与岳石文化临近地区活跃着二里头文化、先商文化及其后继的二里冈商文化。多年来对这些考古学文化的分期、年代、分布等的研究取得了丰硕成果,这使我们可以对这一时期夷、夏、商三大集团的人文地理分布格局有一个宏观的认识。然而,在利用聚落考古研究成果及考古学文化因素分析等方法对相关遗存加以分析时,发现这个时间段内海岱文化区的人文地理格局是一个变化较大的时期,大体可分为四个明显的阶段。本文主要利用考古学研究的成果,结合历史文献,从历史文化地理学的视角出发对岳石文化时期夷、夏、商三大集团的分布、对峙、交流、融合, 特别是海岱文化区内东夷族群的分布、流变作一初步研究, 以认识四个阶段该地区人文地理格局,同时尝试分析造成这种格局的种种原因。