In the afternoon, January 15, 2010, “2009 Winter Forum for Young Archaeologists of the Institute of Archaeology, CASS” was hold in the auditorium on the eighth floor, which was presided by Chen Xingcan, the vice-director of the institute. Speakers were Yan Zhibin, Liu Tao, Tong Tao and Liu Rui.
Yan Zhibin from the Department of Xia, Shang and Zhou Archaeology gave the first speech “Inscriptions and decorations on the bronzes from Shang tombs at Jingjie Village, Lingshi County”. Firstly he gave the essential information about the Shang tombs at this site, including the key words of the bronze inscriptions bing, the bing group’s living period and relating history, and quantity and distribution of their bronzes. Next, he reported his own study on classification of the bronze decorations, which could be categorized into two groups, zoomorphic and geometric styles. The former category includes animal-mask, dragon, bird, snake and cicada. With the help of abundant photos, the reporter discussed the relationship among decorations on the bronzes with inscriptions including the character bing, the bronzes with inscriptions without the character bing, and the bronzes without any inscription respectively. At last he reached his conclusion on the model of bronze vessels offering in these Shang burials. He argued that when studying the bronze vessels offering model, the bing bronzes should be excluded in order to get a subjective understanding. As to the bronzes without bing inscription in the bing group tombs, he argued that it could be a reflection of the vassals’ sacrificial system.
The second reporter Liu Tao, from the Department of Han-Tang Archaeology, made a speech on “The origins of glazed pottery, celadon, and white porcelain in North China”. He firstly gave a brief introduction about the definition of the Northern Dynasties Period, and the essential information about glazed pottery, celadon and white porcelain. In the second part “the glazed pottery in Northern Dynasties” he introduced the history, development and characteristics of the glazed pottery in Northern Dynasties, and stressed that during the period the white glazed potteries existed in certain number. In the third part “the celadon of Northern Dynasties” he showed abundant photos on some celadon from kiln sites, tombs and city sites, and made a detailed introduction about technical improvement of the celadon, discoveries of kiln sites and their features. In the fourth part “the white porcelain in Northern Dynasties and its origin” the reporter discussed in detail the discovery of white porcelain, the date of its origin, its feature in early stage, producing areas, historical background and significance of its emergence. His view on the origin of white porcelain was further stated: White porcelain was created in late Northern Dynasties, and was a necessary result of constant improvement and development of grazed pottery and celadon in Northern China.
The third reporter was Tong Tao from the Research Center for Frontier Archaeology. His topic was “The dating and occupant of Reshui burial No.1 in Dulan, Qinghai Province.” He firstly described the location, form and size of the tomb. After a comparison with tombs of Tubo kings and ministers, he argued that the rank of Reshui burial No.1 occupant was lower than Tubo kings and higher than ministers. According to the silks, gilt silver objects and dendrochronological data of nearby tombs, he dated the Reshui burial No.1 to the second half of 7th century to the beginning of 8th century, and pointed out that the Reshui cemetery was the largest and most concentrated cemetery during that time across the Qinghai Province. It possessed largest scale and highest rank, which could rival a mausoleum. In conclusion, in view of the ancient Chinese and Tibetan texts and the tomb’s rank and dating, the reporter argued that the tomb’s occupant was not the Tubo king, nor was the highest military and administrative officer sent to the Tuyuhun region by the Tubo central government, but, with high possibility, it was the first Tuyuhun king dBon dargyal khri zung, who dead in 694 and was appointed by the Tubo government after it was annexed.
The fourth speech “Some views on the Cao Cao tomb” was temporarily added one, given by Liu Rui from the Department of Han-Tang Archaeology, referring to some questions under hot discussion and some neglected evidence. Accompanying with historical records and archaeological finds, he made detailed introduction and interpretation to the relation between bozang (thrifty mortuary rite) and tombs without mounds and trees on the ground, the understanding of Cao Cao’s last words “don’t bury gold, jade, and treasures”, the relation between the female deceased and Madame Bian, the relation between the graveyard and the pictorial stone, etc.
The four speeches were all quite excellent. The audiences could participate in actively, and the atmosphere was very animated and lively. Finally Chen Xingcan gave a comment and summary. (Translated by Tong Tao)