Abstract: Xinglongwa Culture is known as the earliest Neolithic identity in northeastern region of China. Occupants of Xinglongwa practiced a unique burial fashion – in-house burial which is regarded by most archaeologists to represent certain aspect of local rituals. It is believed that this kind of burial rituals attained significance of praying in various subsistent activities as well as social reproduction within Xinglongwa societies. In this paper, human remains from this kind of Xinglongwa burials were examined, and the study has arrived at following conclusions.
1、The subject of this study includes a total of 34 individuals from in-house burials. Male individuals apparently predominate over female individuals at 2.09:1 ratio (23 males verse 11 females). Within the male group, none individual was identified as being over 55 in age, whereas all of females belong to middle-to-old age group, no one younger than 35 years old. The youngest individuals examined were at age of 13 or 14 years old. If we consider this would be an age for mature sex-awareness, then we can suspect that children before mature sex-awareness age might not have participated in in-house burial ritual if they die.
2、The physical features of Xinglongwa peoples, from examination of their remains, can be summarized as following: a. mesocrany or brachycrany in association with hypsicrany and with metriocrany or acrocrany, b. high, broad, and flat facial appearance, and c. mesoconchy or hypsiconchy. These features are present consistently between the male group and the female group, suggestive of strong morphological characters of Mongolian races.
3、Robust mandibula and well-developed mandibular torus are found in most of human remains examined, which might have related to mobile life-style of the occupants. Hunting-gathering activities provided a great degree of masticating materials which stimulated the development of robust jaws and torus.
4、From examined samples, we can observe that average height of male was between 163.8 cm and 168.8 cm, while the average height of female between 153.4 cm – 159.9 cm.
5、The study found that Xinglongwa occupants had a great deal of oral cavity disease, especial in the form of caries，abscess and periodontal disease. Dental caries are found more in the female group than in male group. In addition, dental disease more likely occurred among the middle-age people at Xinglongwa period.
6、The study also found that a number of diseases were found on Xinglongwa human skeletons, including osteoarthritis, ankylosis, button osteoma, and other types of disease caused by innutrition like porotic hyperostosis and osteoporotic. Among those diseases that can be identified from analyses of the remains, diseases related to vertebra were most common, especially to the lumbar.