(Acta Archaeologica Sinica)
No. 2, 2017
On the Origins and Formation of Early Qin Culture………………………（149）
The Influences of the Bronzes of the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River to the Central Plains in the Early Zhou Dynasty …………… (175)
Collective Examination on the Legal Documents in the Baoshan Chu Bamboo Slips…………………………………………………(205)
School of History, Beijing Normal University et al.,
The Excavation of the Longquan Cave Site in Luanchuan, Henan in 2011 ………………………………………………………………………(227)
Sichuan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology,
The Excavation of the Xinyaopu Site of the Shang and Zhou Dynasty in Guanghan, Sichuan ………………………………………………(249)
ON THE ORIGINS AND FORMATION OF EARLY QIN CULTURE
The early Qin Culture refers to the Qin Culture from the Western Zhou Dynasty to the early Spring-and-Autumn Period. Considering its cultural composition, we will realize that it has three main sources, namely the Shang, Zhou and Xirong (Western Barbarian) Cultures. The elements derived from the Shang Culture include the setting of waist pits and the custom of burying dogs in graves, the using of human victim and human sacrifice, the burial forms of chariots and horses, the Shang-style pottery wares and the tradition of constructing huge-scale mausoleums. These elements reflect that the Qin people initially came from the east and had strong ties with the Shang Dynasty and were deeply influenced by the Shang Culture, and belonged to the Yin Yimin (adherents of the downfallen Shang Dynasty) in the broader sense. The elements absorbed from the Zhou Culture include the architectural types of the ancestral temples and palaces, the execution of the ritual vessel using system, the musical instrument suspension system, the Zhou-style pottery wares and the writing script features. These elements show that the Qin people learned ritual and musical culture of the Western Zhou Dynasty, which had a great realistic political significance in the early stage of Qin's history. The factors derived from the cultures of the Xirong ethnic group or the northern steppes include the flexed burial position, the gold ornaments on human bodies and chariots and horses, iron wares, animal motifs on utensils, recesses on the walls of the burial pits and the ditches around the graves, the using of the bronze cauldron and daggers. Such elements reflect that during the development process in Longyou region, the Qin people absorbed the cultures of the nearby Xirong ethnic group, the Eurasian steppes and farther beyond. The first kind of elements still occupied the superior position in the Qin Culture down to the mid Western Zhou, then the second and the third ones held preponderance from the late Western Zhou to the early Spring-and-Autumn Period, and simultaneously, the first were only shown in the aristocratic burial activities. Based on the remnant of the Shang Culture, the early Qin Culture came into being by widely absorbing elements of the Zhou and Xirong Cultures.
THE INFLUENCES OF THE BRONZES OF THE MIDDLE AND LOWER REACHES OF THE YANGTZE RIVER TO THE CENTRAL PLAINS IN THE EARLY ZHOU DYNASTY
It is generally believed by the academic circle that the bronzes of Zhou Dynasty in the Central Plains were constantly influencing the bronze cultures in the peripheral areas during their developments. This viewpoint tends to make us neglect the adoption and absorption of the cultural elements in the peripheral areas by the bronze culture of the Central Plains in its developing process. Based on the mold parting methods, décor motifs, general shapes and other factors of the bronzes, this paper pointed out that a kind of kui-dragon design in curling-cloud shape and decorated with “∽”-shaped pattern which was seen on the bronzes in the Central Plains during the Western Zhou Dynasty had relationship with the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River; in terms of general shape, there were also four kinds of ding-tripods related to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, which were the ding-tripods with wide mouth and shallow belly, the ding-tripods with contracted neck, the ding-tripods with sagging belly and the ding-tripods with shallow belly and short legs. Some of these bronzes found in the Central Plains had typical styles of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River; some of them have the shapes of typical styles of the Central Plains, but their decors and/or details of parts have absorbed some cultural elements of the bronzes from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and showed the hybrid of two kinds of cultural elements. In terms of weapon, the swallowtail-shaped spearheads seen occasionally in the Central Plains would also appear under the influence from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River; in terms of musical instruments, the yong-bells which appeared in the Central Plains since the early Western Zhou Dynasty had similar decors with that of the yong-bells of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, but sharply different from the decors of the bronze vessels of the Central Plains; down to the mid and late Western Zhou Dynasty, the styles of the yong-bells' decors of the Central Plains gradually became consistent with that of other bronzes of the same area, and meanwhile, long inscriptions began to appear on the yong-bells. This phenomenon reflected that the yong-bells also had a procedure of conversion from the style of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River to that of the Central Plains. All of the cases mentioned above are the evidences of the absorption of the cultural elements of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River by the Central Plains.
COLLECTIVE EXAMINATION ON THE LEGAL DOCUMENTS IN THE BAOSHAN CHU BAMBOO SLIPS
In the bamboo slips unearthed from the tombs of the Chu State of the Warring-States Period at Baoshan, there are some legal documents. The original titles of these legal documents included “Jizhu”, “Jizhu yan”, “Shouqi”, “Shuyu” and so on. Jizhu is the collected register, or the collection of the name lists of the adult male people. In Jizhu, the term “xin guan (new officials)” is seen; in the pre-Qin period, the officials born in the aristocrat families who succeeded their posts from their previous generations were called “jiu guan (old officials)”, and therefore the term “xin guan” would refer to the officials promoted from the commoners. In Jizhu, the official title “du dafu (the grand master of du)” is recorded; the “du” was the fief of the aristocrats with ancestral temple built; the fiefs without ancestral temple were called as “yi” and their lords were called “yi gong”; at the beginning of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the royal court had the “yi kao”. According to the content of the book Shouqi (Receiving date), in the local administrative structures, there were the official titles of jia gong加公, li gong里公, etc.; the jia gong加公, which was actually jia gong家公, was zu shi族师 (precinct mentor); li gong里公 was lü xu闾胥 (village assistant). In Shouqi, the terms wu gong吾公 and guan ren关人 are also seen: wu gong was the jiao yin郊尹 (suburban magistrate) in the historic literature, and the guan ren was the si guan司关 (supervisor of customs duties) in Zhou li (Rites of Zhou). The yu ling玉令 in the legal documents referred to the supervisor of the jade craftsmen, and the yu lou玉娄 was actually yu shu玉数, which referred to the financial and accounting staff, who were called ji li计吏 (accounts clerk) in ancient times. The term shuyu疏狱 (posting the details of criminal cases) has been seen in the Xiao wen (Minor queries) chapter of Guanzi; in this book, the term li鬲 is seen, which referred to the jailers, and was frequently seen in the bronze inscriptions. The yi ren邑人 was the bi ren鄙人 (head of five hundred households) in the historic literature, and the zou bang走傍 was subordinate of bi ren, and participated in the transportation work of the official government. The qiao yu乔与 referred to the pontoon bridge, and the officials in charge of the affairs about the pontoon bridge were called qiao yin乔尹 and qiao chai乔差. The fen in zhi fen职奋 should be read as run润, which was the title of the officials who was in charge of paying salaries to the officials. In the book Shuyu, the story that the king of the Chu State ordered to bury the bodies of the people killed in battle as fast as possible was recorded, which reflected the situation of the frequent warfare at that time.
THE EXCAVATION OF THE LONGQUAN CAVE SITE IN LUANCHUAN, HENAN IN 2011
School of History, Beijing Normal University
Luoyang Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
Commission for Preservation of Ancient Monuments, Luanchuan County
The Longquan Cave Site is a cave site in the early Upper Paleolithic Age, dating to 42-31 cal. kaBP. This site had three strata from early to late. Stratum 1 was modern deposit with breccia or grayish-yellow silt soil; Stratum 2 was the main cultural layer in brownish-red clay texture dating to 31-35 kaBP; Stratum 3 yielding very few artifacts was a yellow fine sandy silt layer dating to 36-42 kaBP. In total 512 pieces of lithic products and 464 pieces of fauna fossils, including 159 teeth and 305 pieces of bones of 3 cm or larger in size, were unearthed. The animals included large herbivorous animals such as rhinoceros, buffalos, wapiti, chital, muntjacs, animals of subfamily Caprinae, and large carnivorous animals such as tigers, leopards and hyena (crocuta ultima). In addition, fossils of some small carnivorous animals such as foxes and weasels, and omnivorous animals such as pigs, bears and rodents and fishes were also found. Moreover, a bone tool and two overlapped hearths were discovered. The dwellers of Longquan Cave have had the behavior features of modern human beings; the space in the cave could be obviously divided into zones with different functions. And the people here could hunt large herbivorous animals. In addition, they could not only efficiently control and manage the fire in the hearths but also could heat food through the heated stones. The analysis on the unearthed bone tool showed that it was different from the knapped bone tools in earlier period and the ground bone tools from the Upper Cave in Beijing and Xiaogushan Site in Liaoning, both dating to the Upper Paleolithic Age, but similar to the bone tools from Chuanfan Cave in Fujian, which was mainly produced by scraping technique. Referring to the fossils of the modern human beings recently unearthed from southern China, it was considered that the emergences of the modern human beings in southern China and Southeast Asia and their behaviors and adaptation modes might have been different from those in northern China and Northeast Asia.
THE EXCAVATION OF THE XINYAOPU SITE OF THE SHANG AND ZHOU DYNASTY IN GUANGHAN, SICHUAN
Sichuan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
In July and August 2012, Sichuan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology conducted excavation to the Xinyaopu (“New Pharmacy”) Site located at the Dasha Village in Xigao Town, Guanghan City, Sichuan. The stratigraphic accumulation of this site was simple, only five strata were identified, and only the fourth and fifth strata were the cultural accumulations of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties. In addition, two pottery kilns and 27 ash pits, as well as pits lined with pebbles, ash ditches, postholes of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties were recovered. The artifacts found in the excavation were mainly pottery wares, the types of which were bo-bowls with small flat bottom, dou-stemmed bowls with high stem, dou-shaped objects, pots with high neck and ring foot, jars with high neck, jars with deep belly, jars with ring foot, vats with contracted mouth, jugs with flared mouth, vessel lids, etc. Stone adzes and axes were also unearthed. The cultural accumulations could be divided into the early and late stages, the dates of which were both Phase IV of the Sanxingdui Site, corresponding to Phases II and III of the Yinxu Period of the late Shang Dynasty. The Xinyaopu Site might be a small-scale pottery workshop site serving the Sanxingdui Site, which provided important materials for the exploration on the regional settlement pattern of the Sanxingdui Site and the nature of the settlement of Phase IV. The rich remains of Phase IV are significantly meaningful for the re-understanding of its cultural nature: the remains of Phase IV of the Sanxingdui Site are preliminarily estimated to belong to Sanxingdui Culture rather than Shi'erqiao Culture.