The Researches on the Early Remains of Yangshao Culture in Western Henan, Southern Shanxi and Central Shaanxi …………………………………………… (443)
Teng Mingyu and Zhang Liang,
The Cultural Elements from the Central Plains in Yuhuangmiao Culture Distributed in the Mountainous Areas in Northern Hebei During the Eastern Zhou Period …………………………………………………………………………… (481)
Institute of Archaeology of Nanjing Museum and Sihong County Museum,
The Excavation of the Shunshanji Site of Neolithic Age in Sihong County, Jiangsu …………………………………………………………………………… (519)
Institute of Archaeology, CASS and Cultural Relics Conservation Institute of Tibet Autonomous Region,
The Excavation of the Gurugyam Cemetery in Gar County, Ngari Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region in 2012 …………………………………………………… (563)
THE RESEARCHES ON THE EARLY REMAINS OF YANGSHAO CULTURE IN WESTERN HENAN, SOUTHERN SHANXI AND CENTRAL SHAANXI
The early remains of Yangshao Culture in western Henan, southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi are significantly meaningful for the in-depth understanding to Yangshao Culture, but at present the comprehensive studies on them are insufficient. This paper made analyses to the remains of the main sites of this period in these areas and divided these remains into three phases and five stages; with references to the 14C dating results, this paper figured out that these remains fell into the period of 5000-4300 BC, and lasted for about 700 years. Based on the periodization of these remains, this paper summarized the basic cultural characteristics of the remains of this period in western Henan-southern Shanxi and central Shaanxi and assigned them into two types -- Zaoyuan Type and Lingkou Type -- with their differences and similarities. The early remains of Yangshao Culture were formed mainly under the influence of Peiligang Culture, and the issues of the relationship between Peiligang Culture and Yangshao Culture and the origin of Yangshao Culture could be systematically explained. The developing tendencies of Zaoyuan Type and Lingkou Type of this period were Dongzhuang Type and Banpo Type of the early Yangshao Age, respectively, these research results provided prerequisites for the clarification of the relationships among these types of Yangshao Culture.
THE CULTURAL ELEMENTS FROM THE CENTRAL PLAINS IN YUHUANGMIAO CULTURE DISTRIBUTED IN THE MOUNTAINOUS AREAS IN NORTHERN HEBEI DURING THE EASTERN ZHOU PERIOD
Teng Mingyu and Zhang Liang
Through the studies on the origins and chronologies of the bronzes with styles of the Central Plains appeared in the remains of Yuhuangmiao Culture distributed in the mountainous areas in northern Hebei, this paper pointed out that the interactions of Yuhuangmiao Culture and the cultures in the Central Plains during the Eastern Zhou Period could be divided into two large stages. The first stage, which was from the later half of the mid Spring-and-Autumn Period to the late Spring-and-Autumn Period, was mainly the interactions between Yuhuangmiao Culture and the Jin State and the Luoyang region in the Central Plains, which were the royal metropolitan area of the Eastern Zhou, and the states in present-day Shandong represented by the Qi State; this kind of interaction was mostly conducted between the high-ranking aristocrats of the peoples belonging to these cultures, and the interactions were reciprocal, the forms of which included marriage and warfare, etc. However, the elite class of the Yuhuangmiao Culture did not adopt the ritual functions of the bronze ritual vessels from the Central Plains; meanwhile, Yuhuangmiao Culture still kept its traditional weapons and fighting methods. The second stage, which was in the early Warring-States Period, was mainly the interactions between Yuhuangmiao Culture and the split Jin State and the Luoyang region in the Central Plains and the Yan State, and the methods of the interactions were warfare, marriage, and perhaps gift presenting and trade, while in this period the interaction was rather one-way, which was the unilateral acceptance of the cultures from the Central Plains by the Yuhuangmiao Culture. The elite class of Yuhuangmiao Culture was not affiliated with the hierarchical system of the Central Plains and still kept the symbols of their original statuses and positions, but its members have completely approved the ritual system of the Central Plains in their minds. This staged change also matches the growth and decline of the relative strengths between the ethnic groups in the Northern Frontier Zone and the Central Plains during the Eastern Zhou Period.
THE EXCAVATION OF THE SHUNSHANJI SITE OF NEOLITHIC AGE IN SIHONG COUNTY, JIANGSU
Institute of Archaeology of Nanjing Museum and Sihong County Museum
The Shunshanji Site is located at Zhaozhuang Village, Meihua (Prunus Blossom) Town, Sihong County, Jiangsu Province, and 15 km to the northwest of the Sihong County seat. From March 2010 to February 2013, the joint archaeological team organized by the Institute of Archaeology of Nanjing Museum and Sihong County Museum conducted three terms of excavation to this site, which revealed that the Shunshanji Site was a large-scale settlement site surrounded by ditch (moat) of the mid Neolithic Age around 8000 BP with unique cultural connotations, and its remains of Neolithic Age could be divided into three phases. The settlement patterns of the remains of Phases I and II were the circular ground-level house foundations surrounded by the large ditch (moat); the pottery assemblage consisted of fu-cauldron, stove and jar, the tools such as stone querns, grinding balls and pottery spindle whorls were very popular, all of which had clear characteristics. The cultural remains represented by Phases I and II of Shunshanji Site can be seen as a new archaeological culture found in the lower reach of the Huai River which could be named as Shunshanji Culture. The remains of Phase III of Shunshanji Site had many common or similar cultural elements with that of Kuahuqiao Culture distributed in the Qiantang River Valley. The lower reach of Huai River is the cultural hub area for the cultures from all directions to meet, communicate and integrate; the peculiar cultural connotation of Shunshanji Culture hinted that around 8000 BP, the basin of the ancient Sui River, where the Shunshanji Site was located, was a relatively independent cultural zone with some communication with the outside cultures. As the largest and earliest ditch-surrounded settlement remains, the Shunshanji Site has representative meaning among the remains of the same period and region with its long-lasting occupation time and rich cultural connotation; it filled up the blank of the archaeological cultures of the Neolithic Age in the lower reach of Huai River and provided a standard sequence for the researches on the genealogy of the archaeological cultures in this area.
THE EXCAVATION OF THE GURUGYAM CEMETERY IN GAR COUNTY, NGARI PREFECTURE, TIBET AUTONOMOUS REGION IN 2012
Institute of Archaeology, CASS and Cultural Relics Conservation Institute of Tibet Autonomous Region
In June through August 2012, the Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and Cultural Relics Conservation Institute of Tibet Autonomous Region jointly conducted the first excavation to the Gurugyam Cemetery located in Moincêr Township, Gar County, Ngari Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region. The excavation recovered an ancient burial in front of the gate of the Gurugyam Monastery of Bön School; in the area within 20 m around this burial, other three larger burials were successively found and excavated. All of these burials were vertical stone chamber tombs about 4-6 m deep. They formed the deepest and most densely arranged large-sized burial group discovered to date in Ngari Prefecture, which is even very rare in the entire Tibet Autonomous Region. From these tombs, silk textiles, small-sized gold masks, bronzes, iron and wooden objects and large amount of animal bones were unearthed. The silk textiles are the first found in the archaeological activities in Tibet, and also the earliest silk products found to date on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The brocade with bird-and-beast designs and “Wang Hou (Kings and Marquises)” characters woven as part of patterns reflected the social rank of the occupants of these burials and the cultural relationship of this area with southern Xinjiang. The horse hoof-shaped wooden comb, wooden tray with four legs, fire-making appliances, straw-woven utensils and other grave goods showed the cultural communication of this area with the Tarim Basin in the Han through the Jin Dynasties. The 14C dating results showed that the dates of these four burials were the 2nd to the early 3rd centuries AD, which corresponded to the Eastern Han Dynasty of the Central Plains. The excavation revealed that the Gurugyam Cemetery was a dense burial group of the Zhang Zhung Kingdom period and had a tight relationship with Kyunglung Ngükar (the Silver Palace), the capital city of Zhang Zhung. The archaeological cultures in the western Himalaya region centered by the valley of Langqên Zangbo (the upper reach of Sutlej River) had many common features; therefore they should belong to a same cultural system -- the Zhang Zhung Culture. The excavation of Gurugyam Cemetery filled up the blank of the archaeology in the western Tibet, deepened our understandings to the “pre-Tibetan Empire” civilizations in the western Tibet and enlightened us to notice the important role this long-neglected area played in the early stage of the development of the civilizations in Tibet with their rich connotation.