Suo Xiufen and Li Shaobing,
The Sequence and Pattern of the Archaeological Cultures of the Neolithic Age on the South and North Sides of the Yangshan Mountain …………………………………………………………………… (293)
On the Early Metal Wares and Early Metal Age in Tibet …………………(327)
Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University et al.,
The Excavation of the Xuezhuang Site in Handan County, Hebei ………………………………………………………………………(351)
Department of Archeology, School of History & Culture (Tourism), Sichuan University et al.,
The Excavation of the Tombs of the Han Dynasty at Quanyangou in Xichuan County, Henan ……………………………………………………………… (391)
THE SEQUENCE AND PATTERN OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL CULTURES OF THE NEOLITHIC AGE ON THE SOUTH AND NORTH SIDES OF THE YANSHAN MOUNTAIN
Suo Xiufen and Li Shaobing
The archaeological cultures of the Neolithic Age on the south and north sides of the Yanshan Mountain existed in 9000-2000 BC. Among them, the Zhuannian Culture existed in 9000-7500 BC, Xiaohexi Culture existed in 7500-6400BC; Xiliang Culture, which was roughly contemporaneous with Xinglongwa Culture, existed in 6400-5000 BC; Zhaobaogou Culture, Shangzhai Culture and Zhenjiangying Phase I Culture, which were roughly at the same time: Zhaobaogou Culture existed in 5500-4500 BC and Shangzhai Culture existed in 5500-4700 BC; Hongshan Culture existed in 4700-3000BC; Fuhe Culture existed in 5500-3000 BC. The Hougang Phase I Culture existed in 4800-3900 BC; its early stage was contemporaneous with Phase IV of Zhaobaogou Culture and Phase I of Hongshan Culture and its mid and late stages were contemporaneous with Phase II of Hongshan Culture. Phase III of Hongshan Culture was roughly at the same time with Miaodigou Culture and Phase IV of Hongshan Culture was roughly at the same time with Banpo Phase IV Culture. Xiaoheyan Culture emerged during the Phase IV of Hongshan Culture, and existed during 3500-2000 BC. The remains of F18 of Shuiquan Site, Xueshan Phase II and DachengshanT8② were roughly at the same time, which was between 2500-2000 BC. The remains of Zhuannian Culture appeared on the south side of the Yangshan Mountain and that of Xiaohexi Culture were discovered on the north side of the Yanshan Mountain. In the zone curbed by Xar Moron River to the north and Luan River in the south, a cultural development area was formed: the cultures developed, evolved and replaced each in this sequence: Xiaohexi Culture→Xinglongwa Culture→Zhaobaogou Culture→Hongshan Culture→Xiaoheyan Culture. Except for Xiaohexi Culture, which has not been made clear, each of the cultures at its final stage had the following culture appeared, developed and replaced the old culture during its growing up. The Xiliang Culture and Fuhe Culture distributed to the north of Xar Moron River were the local aboriginal cultures. The strong cultures between Xar Moron River and Luan River, such as Xinglongwa Culture, Zhaobaogou Culture and Hongshan Culture, were continuing advancing northward and scattered together with Xiliang Culture and Fuhe Culture. Shangzhai Culture was the aboriginal culture in the upper reach of Jiyun River; it was derived from Zhenjiangying Phase I Culture. The Hougang Phase I and Hougang Phase II Cultures and Shandong Longshan Culture went northward successively and occupied the south side of the Yanshan Mountain, which was the region for the archaeological cultures represented by cylindrical jars in Northeast China and that coming from the lower reach of the Yellow River to meet and merge.
ON THE EARLY METAL WARES AND EARLY METAL AGE IN TIBET
The studies on the issue of the early making and using of the metal wares in Tibet have long been relying on the textual materials completed in later times, but could not be supported by the archaeologically obtained physical materials. This paper systematically trimmed the results of the Tibetan archaeology in recent years and pointed out that the earliest date of the making of metal wares in Tibet could be as early as 4000 BP or earlier. In 2500-2000 BP, which corresponded to the Warring-States Period and the Qin and Han Dynasties in the Central Plains, the early metal age in Tibet showed a complicated feature; iron wares might have been introduced into the Tibetan Plateau, and the compound objects composed of iron and bronze parts became popular, showing that the people had some knowledge on these two metals. The people living in Ngari Plateau in western Tibet and Yarlung Tsangpo Valley in south Tibet had known to use or make iron weapons and ornaments; the discovery of the large quantity of iron arrowheads, which were consumables in weaponry, proved that the iron production at that time reached a rather high level. Another important feature of the early metal age in Tibet was that a set of gold products emerged in the early metal wares of Tibet; as in many nomadic tribes living in Eurasian Steppes, gold seemed to be widely known and used by the Tibetan people as the symbols of status, position and wealth at this time. It could also be observed from the early metal wares unearthed in Tibet that their making probably referred to the various features of the manufacturing and decorating of the early metal wares in the surrounding areas, and some special metal objects might have been introduced into Tibet through multiple possible approaches. All of these fully reflected the clear features of openness, inclusiveness and absorbability of the early metal age in Tibet.
THE EXCAVATION OF THE XUEZHUANG SITE IN HANDAN COUNTY, HEBEI
Research center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University
Hebei Provincial Bureau of Cultural Relics
The Xuezhuang Site is located about 500 m to the northwest of Xuezhuang Village in Huangliangmeng Town of Handan County, Hebei Province, lying in the south end of Taihang Mountain. In August to December 2006, the archaeological team of the Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University carried out archaeological exploration and excavation to the site under the direction of Hebei Provincial Bureau of Cultural Relics. In the revealed area of about 3,025 sq m we discovered 310 ash pits, 46 tombs, 10 ditches, two hearth remains, two wells and one road with two parallel tracks, and almost 1,000 artifacts including the restorable pottery wares, implements made of stone, bone and other materials. The Xuezhuang Site has a large occupancy and a long time in use. In the site, the archaeological remains of Longshan Culture, proto-Shang, late Shang, Han-Three-Kingdoms and Tang-Song periods were discovered, and the ones of Longshan Culture, proto-Shang and late Shang Culture were rather rich. It not only helps us to know the characteristics and chronology of the remains of Longshan Age in the southern Hebei, but also it will help to improve the study about pre-Shang Culture that has long been neglected. The researches showed that the remains of the Longshan Age in Xuezhuang Site were similar to the ones of the same period distributed in southern Hebei and northern Henan, and would belong to Hougang Phase II Culture; the remains of the proto-Shang Culture could be divided into the early and late phases, the cultural features of which showed strong local characteristics, and could be attributed to the Zhanghe Type of Xiaqiyuan Culture; the remains of the late Shang Culture could be divided into four phases, which corresponded to the Phases I to IV of Yinxu Culture, respectively; the burials of the late Shang period in Xuezhuang had similar characteristics to that at Yinxu Site in Anyang, so the late Shang remains in this site would belonged to Yinxu Culture. These discoveries have significant academic meanings for our in-depth understanding to the natures and dates of the cultural remains of the Longshan Age in southern Hebei, perfecting the chronological researches on the proto-Shang Culture which is still weak at present, and exploring the social pattern of the clans in the late Shang period and other issues.
THE EXCAVATION OF THE TOMBS OF THE HAN DYNASTY AT QUANYANGOU IN XICHUAN COUNTY, HENAN
Department of Archeology, School of History & Culture (Tourism), Sichuan University
Art Research Institute of Shanghai University
Henan Provincial Bureau of Cultural Relics
Nanyang Municipal Bureau of Cultural Relics
Xichuan County Bureau of Cultural Relics
The Quanyangou Cemetery located on the east bank of Danjiangkou Reservoir in Xichuan County, Henan was excavated in 2010-2011, by which 93 burials were recovered, including 57 vertical earthen shaft pit tombs in rectangular plans with or without narrow passages, 35 brick-chamber tombs which could be classified into single-chamber and double-chamber ones, and one infant burial with brick-built coffin. From these burials, 523 pieces of grave goods plus 1063 bronze coins were unearthed; usually, each earthen shaft pit tomb yielded 3-6 pieces of grave goods and each undisturbed brick-chamber yielded more than eight pieces. The grave goods were made of pottery, bronze, iron, glass and stone, and the potteries took the bulk. The potteries were mostly gray fine pottery, the types of which were ding-tripod, box, vase, double-handled jar, vat, mou-cauldron, jiaodou-wine warmer, basin, bowl, fu-cauldron with an outer ring, zeng-steamer, models of granary, oven, well, animal-pen and restroom, grindstone, lamp, figurines of dog and chicken, etc. Some brick-chamber tombs had flat tiles and semi-cylindrical tiles decorated with cord pattern unearthed. Only 15 bronzes were unearthed, including juan-vessel, belt hook, bubble-shaped ornament, ring, decorative fitting, etc. 14 iron wares were unearthed, including fu-cauldron, basin, lamp, sword, arrowhead, knife, ax, etc. Glass eardrop and beads were also found in the excavation. This might be a public cemetery used from the early Western Han through the late Eastern Han Dynasty, the occupants of which were probably mostly common people, because the sizes of the tombs were not large. The dates of these tombs covered almost the entire Western and Eastern Han period, and they could reflect the burial rules, funeral customs of the common people living in the mid and lower reaches of Dan River and their development and evolution during the Han Dynasty.