The Researches on the Turquoise Objects of the Neolithic Age Unearthed in China ………………………………………………………………………(139)
Studies on the Issues Related to the Baekje Buddhist Monastery Remains ……………………………………………………………………(169)
Tianjin Museum and Tianjin Municipal Center for conservation of cultural Heritage,
The Trial Excavation of the Qingchi Site in Jixian County, Tianjin…… ………… (195)
South-North Water Transfer (SNWT) Office, Henan Provincial Cultural Heritage Administration et al.
The Excavation of the Stone- and Charcoal-packed Tombs of the Han Dynasty at Machuan Cemetery in Xichuan County, Henan…………………………… (237)
On the Historiographical Characteristics of Li Ji's Archaeological Methodology …………………………………………………………………… (271)
THE RESEARCHES ON THE TURQUOISE OBJECTS OF THE NEOLITHIC AAGE UNEARTHED IN CHINA
The turquoise objects of the Neolithic Age in China are mainly unearthed in the following seven regions: the Central Plains, the Haidai cultural zone, the Gansu-Qinghai-Ningxia region, the Northern Frontier Zone, the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River, the lower reach of the Yangtze River and the South China. By shape, the turquoise objects can be classified into three main types, which are circular, oval and geometric with straight sides. Their main functions are ornaments and burial objects. During the Neolithic Age, the distribution of the turquoise objects were expanding constantly from the early to the late period: in the early period, they were only seen in the Central Plains and the Northern Frontier Zone; down to the late period, they were found in all of the seven regions. Generally, the turquoise objects were relatively popular in the Gansu-Qinghai-Ningxia region in the upper reach of the Yellow River, the Central Plains and the Haidai cultural zone. In term of quantity, from the emergence of turquoise objects in the Central Plains and Haidai cultural zone during the mid Neolithic Age, their quantities experienced a process of gradually increasing and then gradually decreasing; however, in the Gansu-Qinghai-Ningxia region located in the upper reach of the Yellow River, the quantity of turquoise objects were keeping increasing during the whole Neolithic Age. In term of shape, the forms and types of the turquoise objects were changing from simple to complex and from single object to parts and decorations inlayed or attached to other objects. At the beginning, the manufacturing techniques were relatively simple, but the engraving skill appeared. The turquoise objects were mainly unearthed from burials; when they just emerged, the statuses, positions and the wealth as well as genders and ages of the tomb occupants were not distinguished by the absence or presence of the turquoise objects, which were mainly body ornaments. However, during the Longshan Period, in some regions the turquoise was attached to some exquisite utensils or implements which might be used as ritual instruments as decoration, and began to become symbols of statuses and ranks, which was the most obvious in the Haidai area. As for the resources of the turquoise, it is still to be explored that they were imported from the peripheral area of present-day China or obtained locally, but the author of this paper tends to believe that the raw material of the turquoise objects were obtained and processed locally.
STUDIES ON THE ISSUES RELATED TO THE BAEKJE BUDDHIST MONASTERY REMAINS
In the Sabi Period of Baekje Kingdom (538-660 AD), the distribution of the Buddhist monasteries in the capital city was similar to that of the Goguryeo in and nearby Anhak Palace and in and outside the Jangan City. During the same period, in the inner and outer cities of the Luoyang City of the Northern Wei Dynasty, in the outer city of the Jiankang City of the Southern Dynasties and in the Daxing-Chang'an City of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, hundreds of Buddhist monasteries were built, and their distributions were also very similar to that in Sabi City of Baekje Kingdom.
The popular pattern of the layout of the samgharama
(Buddhist monasteries) in Baekje was the “one pagoda and one Buddha hall” type centered by the pagoda and the Buddha hall, which was different from the “one pagoda and three Buddha halls” pattern popular in Pyongyang area of Goguryeo and had its own characteristics; however, in China at the same time, the Siyuan Buddhist Temple and Yongning Temple of the Northern Wei Dynasty were proven by the excavations to be also in the “one pagoda and one Buddha hall” pattern, and in the Qinglong Temple in Xi'an, which was believed to be built in the Sui Dynasty, the same layout was also discovered.
The rammed-earth core of the wooden pagodas built in the Northern Dynasties of China has not found its counterpart in the wooden pagodas of Baekje; referring to the historic records, we believe that the structures of the wooden pagodas built in the Sabi Period of Baekje had closer relationship with that of the Southern Dynasties of China.
The Neungsan-ri Buddhist temple was built by the descendants of King Seong of Baskje beside his mausoleum to commemorate and worship him. The Chanting Temple built by Xiao Huikai beside his father's tomb had similar functions to the Neung-Sa (mausoleum temple) in Baekje, but it is not clear that if the ceremonies of praying for blessings were ever held in Chanting Temple. On the contrary, The Huangji Temple built by Emperor Wu of the Southern Liang Dynasty beside the mausoleum of his father, Emperor Wen, in 536 AD, was extremely similar to the Neung-Sa in Baekje in terms of both the date and the nature.
THE TRIAL EXCAVATION OF THE QINGCHI SITE IN JIXIAN COUNTY, TIANJIN
Tianjin Museum and Tianjin Municipal Center for Conservation of Cultural Heritage
The Qingchi Site is located in Wubaihu Township, Jixian County. The remains were distributed at the tops and slopes of the hilly height called “Matou (horse head) Hill” to the south of the Li River, which is a tributary of Ju River, on the southeast bank of the present-day Yuqiao Reservoir. This site was discovered in 1997, when it was damaged because of the embankment construction of the reservoir. In 1997 through 1999, three terms of rescue excavation were conducted to this site, by which the remains covering 500 sq m were recovered. These remains belonged to the cultures of the Neolithic Age, the bronze cultures in the Xia and Shang Dynasties and the culture of the Yan State in the early Western Zhou Dynasty. The remains of the Neolithic Age were that of a kind of mixed culture, which could be divided into three phases. The remains of Phases I and II were found in a natural gulch the length of which exposed out of the water was 34.7 m, the width, 5-9 m and the depth, 1-2 m, and the ones submerged in the water were not clear. The remains of Phase I were composed of that of Xinglongwa Culture and Beifudi Phase I Culture; the contents of the Xinglongwa Culture were the sandy pottery cylindrical jars decorated with bowstring pattern, attached repoussé designs and incised net pattern into three or two registers, as well as pottery bowls and stone cylindrical jars. The cultural elements of the Beifudi Phase I Culture are represented by the basin with straight belly made of pottery tempered with mica, the decoration of which were mainly incised and impressed patterns; some fragments of stands of this culture were also found. The remains of Phase II were also composed of the cultural elements of these two cultures, but their contents largely changed. The cylindrical jars of this phase had thick rim and thick body, the decoration of which were the fine and tidy zigzag pattern; meanwhile, the bowls with ring foot and dou
-high stemmed bowls were also popular, and their decorations were the curling cloud patterns formed by fine and tidy S-shaped zigzag patterns intertwined together; the basins with straight belly had flange emerged on the outer edge of the rim and the decoration changed into multiple bowstring pattern; the stands were made into the shape of bird head. The remains of the Phase III, which were found atop the Matou Hill, were composed of the cylindrical jars with thin body and the decoration were scratched strip pattern, and the sandy and fine clay pottery bowls with “red band rim” were found in large amount in the remains of this phase. The remains of the Yan State of the Western Zhou Dynasty were rich, the features of which were the same as that of the remains of the early Yan Culture found at Liulihe in Beijing, but the elements of the Upper Zhangjiayuan Culture were much noticeable.
THE EXCAVATION OF THE STONE- AND CHARCOAL-PACKED TOMBS OF THE HAN DYNASTY AT MACHUAN CEMETERY IN XICHUAN COUNTY, HENAN
South-North Water Transfer (SNWT) Office, Henan Provincial Cultural Heritage Administration, Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Zhumadian Municipal Commission for Preservation of Ancient Monuments
Agreed by the SACH, Zhumadian Municipal Commission for Preservation of Ancient Monuments and other institutions conducted large-scale excavation to the Machuan Cemetery located in Xichuan County from 2007 through 2011, by which over 460 burials of the Eastern Zhou Period, the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties, Western Jin, Tang, Song and Qing Dynasties were found and recovered. Among these burials, about 200 were that of the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties, most of which were not disturbed, especially the 21 stone- and charcoal-packed tombs in various structures. All of these tombs were vertical shaft earthen pit tombs, some of which had ramp passages. Their orientations were in north-south or east-west. The burial furniture and the skeletons of the tomb occupants were mostly rotten away; from the traces, they could be identified as single wooden coffin or double and triple coffins, and the burial positions were mostly extended supine position. The amounts of grave goods varied largely, usually from 3 to 30 pieces, which were mainly potteries, as well as iron and small bronze objects, glass wares, agate objects, and so on. The potteries showed complete assemblages, the main types in which were ding
-tripod, box, vase, fu
-cauldron and zeng
-steamer, vat, jar, models of granary, well, stove, etc. The stone- and charcoal-packed tombs were also the form of some large-sized tombs of the Warring-States Period in the Central Plains, but the middle- and small-sized tombs of the Han Dynasty in other areas seldom had this kind of form, therefore their discovery and excavation provided new physical materials for the in-depth researches on the burial system and funeral custom of the Western and Eastern Han Dynasties in the Nanyang region.
ON THE HISTORIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LI JI'S ARCHAEOLOGICAL METHODOLOGY
The historiographical characteristics of Chinese archaeology is an old issue, but it is still worth discussing. Focusing on Li Ji, this paper analyzed the methodologies advocated by him in the fields of anthropology, ethnology and especially archaeology in the aspects of the “historical method” and “comparative method” stated by him. This methodology may be influenced by the cultural-historical school of the American anthropology and has strong purposefulness. In the process of digging details and pursuing accuracy, Li Ji put forward the methods of classification, quantification, etc. However, these efforts could not get popular in the new generation of archaeologists. The discussion between Li Ji and Kwang-chih Chang reflected the different research statuses pursued by the two generations of archaeologists: the former endeavored on the authenticity and reliability, but lacked to have a clear and feasible theoretic direction; the latter are enthused on establishing systems, but have to modify their systems under the pressure of the endless new discoveries. The “historical method” specially emphasized by Li Ji in his methodology is exactly a cornerstone of the historiographical characteristics of Chinese archaeology.