The Macroscopic Study on the Settlements of Liangzhu Culture ………… ( 1)
The Cultural Transformation of the Burials in the Pingcheng Region during the Pingcheng Period of the Northern Wei Dynasty …………………………… ( 33 )
Guangxi Institute of Cultural Relic Protection and Archaeology and Guigang Museum,
The Excavation of the Tombs of the Han to the Southern Dynasties at Ma'anling and Liangjundong in Guigang, Guangxi …………………………………… ( 67 )
China Three Gorges Museum and Chongqing Museum,
The Survey of the Buddhist Cliff Sculptures in Chongqing Municipality ………………………………………………………………( 135 )
THE MACROSCOPIC STUDY ON THE SETTLEMENTS OF LIANGZHU CULTURE
Settlement archaeology is an important method to study the ancient social relationships and political organizations. Referring to the Western theoretical mode on the settlement archaeology and the facts of Liangzhu Culture, this paper successively studied the distributions, hierarchies, clustering and evolution of the settlements of the four zones of Liangzhu Culture with a series of quantified standards, defined some settlement clusters and explored the interrelationships among them. In Liangzhu Zone, the situations of the Liangzhu settlement cluster and Hengshan settlement cluster are relatively clear and the analysis to the former demonstrated the concrete internal structure and settlement evolution of a strong political entity; in the Jiaxing Zone, the density of the settlements was the highest and the continuity was the strongest; the analyses to the Heyedi settlement cluster and Yaojiashan settlement cluster revealed a settlement pattern with internal hierarchies and the central settlements were continuing to change; in the Jiangsu-Shanghai Zone, more high-ranking settlements are found, because of which the comprehensive patterns of the settlements in this zone are clear; the analyses to the Caoxieshan settlement cluster, Zhanglingshan settlement cluster and Fuquanshan settlement cluster have roughly made clear the growth and decline of the relative strength among these three political entities and the transferring of their center; in Hubei Zone, the archaeological fieldwork was relatively insufficient, but it is shown that the Sidun settlement cluster which contained the Gaochengdun settlement and Sidun settlement would be a powerful political entity in this zone, especially during the late phase of Liangzhu Culture. Based on these analyses, this paper discussed the scale, stability, comprehensive structure, resource utilization and social nature of the society of the Liangzhu Culture, and drew a conclusion that the society of Liangzhu Culture was a chiefdom-like one composed of multi entities and with rather intense social differentiation, and the balances of the strengths of these entities were tightly related to their controlling and utilization of the jade resources.
THE CULTURAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE BURIALS IN THE PINGCHENG REGION DURING THE PINGCHENG PERIOD OF THE NORTHERN WEI DYNASTY
Around the early and late phases of the Pingcheng Period of the Northern Wei Dynasty, the burial culture in the Pingcheng region experienced a sharp transformation.
The diversified characteristics and multi-system coexistence are the simplest summary of the appearance of the burial culture in the early phase of the Pingcheng Period of the Northern Wei Dynasty. During the progress of unifying the north and enlarging the Pingcheng City, the Northern Wei Dynasty largely absorbed the cultures of the Sixteen-Kingdoms to enrich itself; from the cultural elements in the mural tomb at Shaling built in the first year of Taiyan Era (435 AD), Yuchi Dingzhou's tomb built in the third year of Tai'an Era (457 AD) and Liang Baihu's tomb built in the second year of Heping Era (461 AD), we can see that they mainly came from the Gansu Corridor, the northeastern China and the Shaanxi Plain. The plans of the tomb chambers could be square or rectangular; the demonstrations of the lives of the tomb occupants could be painted on the burial furniture or in the murals, or written in the epitaphs made of brick or stone; potteries still took the bulk of the grave goods, but they included not only the traditional Tuoba Xianbei-styled jars with pricked patterns but also the new-styled jars and vases with flat mouth or dish-shaped rim; the tomb murals, moreover, directly showed the coexistence and overlapping of the motifs and composition forms from different cultural origins.
In the late phase of Pingcheng Period, to meet the demand of seizing the legitimate sovereign with the Southern Dynasties, the burial culture adopted the simple and frugal style of the Western Jin Dynasty, the case of which is Song Shaozu's tomb built in the first year of Taihe Era (477 AD) but the beginning of this style would be earlier. The plan of the tomb chamber was regularized into square with curved sides, and the most complicated form was just double-chamber (ante and rear chambers), which was the final form of the tomb types of the Western Jin Dynasty. The tombs of the Western Jin Dynasty did not have murals but three sets of figurine groups (the tomb-guarding set consisting of the tomb-quelling beast and warrior figurines, the procession set consisting of the oxcart, saddled horse and male and female attendant figurines and the animal set consisting of the livestock and poultry figurines) and utensil and facility models, and the characteristics of the tombs in the late phase of Pingcheng Period that the murals were restrained and the complete figurine groups were restored were clearly following this style of the Western Jin Dynasty. The lives of the tomb occupants were recorded into the epitaphs made of rectangular bricks or tablet-shaped or rectangular stones, which were also popular epitaph types of the Western Jin Dynasty. By these changes, the burial culture of the Northern Wei Dynasty entered the track of returning to the “Western Jin System”.
THE EXCAVATION OF THE TOMBS OF THE HAN TO THE SOUITHERN DYNASTIES AT MA'ANLING AND LIANGJUNDONG IN GUIGANG, GUANGXI
Guangxi Institute of Cultural Relic Protection and Archaeology and Guigang Museum
The Ma'anling and Liangjundong Cemetery is located at Sanhe Village in Guicheng Town, Gangbei District, Guigang City, Guangxi, and along the route of Litang-Zhanjiang Railway. In August through October 2010, Guangxi Institute of Cultural Relic Protection and Archaeology excavated 15 tombs in this cemetery. Except for M15, which was a modern tomb, the rest 14 tombs could be classified into earthen pit tombs and brick-chamber tombs. The earthen pit tombs were well preserved, in which the traces of coffin board and coffin nails were seen but the skeletons of the tomb occupants all decayed away and the original burial position could not be known. The brick-chamber tombs were mostly looted; by the comb structure, they could be classified into the tombs with barrel-shaped vault roofs and the ones with combined dome-shaped and vaulted roofs. From these 14 tombs, 241 pieces of grave goods were unearthed, most of which were from the earthen pit tombs of M14, M7 and M15. The grave goods were mainly pottery wares, plus some bronzes, iron and silver wares, jades and objects made of talc, agate and stone. The tomb structures and grave goods showed that these tombs belonged to the late Eastern Han Dynasty, the Three-Kingdoms Period, the Western Jin Dynasty and the Southern Dynasties Period. These tombs with long time span, rich types and rather good continuity provided new materials for understanding the cultural connotation, periodization and evolution and the chronological sequence of the tombs from the late Eastern Han Dynasty to the Southern Dynasties in Guigang area, so they have significant academic values. The pottery sculptures unearthed from M14 are exquisite and found together with the pottery boats and oxcarts representing the land and water transportations, which are the first discovery of this assemblage in Guangxi and the vivid physical materials for the researches on the local communication in the Han Dynasty. The occupant of M14 was the xiancheng (vice magistrate) of Xianhuan District of the Eastern Han Dynasty, which was one of the rare cases of xiancheng with exact identification found to date in China, and his burial system provided important materials for the researches on the burial customs of the low-ranking officials in the Eastern Han Dynasty.
THE SURVEY OF THE BUDDHIST CLIFF SCULPTURES IN CHONGQING MUNICIPALITY
China Three Gorges Museum and Chongqing Museum
The Buddhist cliff sculptures of the Tang Dynasty in Chongqing Municipality, including niches and statues, are mainly distributed along the banks of the Yangtze and Jialing Rivers in Tongnan, Dazu, Hechuan, Tongliang, Zhongxian, Yunyang Counties and districts, among which the ones along the banks of Jialing River were in largest quantity and scale and earlier dates. Considering that the Buddhist cliff sculptures in Dazu County and the Three Gorges Reservoir area have been published successively, this report only includes the cliff sculptures in Tongnan, Hechuan and Tongliang Counties, of which the Buddhist cliff niches and statues of the Tang Dynasty in Tongnan County are the most important. In addition to the large amounts of the cliff sculptures of the mid and late Tang Dynasty, in recent years, the cliff niches of the High Tang Period found at Nanjiawan in Xuejiacun Village, Chongkan Town are the most valuable. At Nanjiawan, some well preserved niches of the mid and late Tang Dynasty containing the motifs of “the Transformation scene of the Western Pure Land” and “the Transformation scene of Amitayurdhyana Sutra” are never seen in other places within the Chongqing Municipality. The pictorial materials of sutra pillars, bridges, pavilions and halls and other architectures enriched the database of the research materials of the ancient architecture in this area. What the most important is the Niche no. 9 at Nanjiawan opened in the late Tang Dynasty: its sculpture motif is the combination of the Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, which would be the succeeding and development of the sculpture motif of the combination of Buddhism and Taoism popular in the Sichuan area during the Tang Dynasty and the result of the eastward and southward diffusion of the motif of the combination of Buddhism and Taoism from Sichuan area. Estimated from this appearance, the motif of the triple-religion combination would have emerged the first in Chongqing area. In general, the Buddhist cliff sculptures distributed in Chongqing area in the east of Sichuan Basin are mostly finished in the mid and late Tang Dynasty and the ones finished in the late Tang period bear clear characteristics.