On the Bronze Swords in the Western and Eastern Zhou Periods ………… (431)
The Research on the Bronzes of the Zhou Dynasty in the Southern Anhui Along the Yangtze River ……………………………………………………………(469)
Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University and Jilin Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology,
The Neolithic Remains of the Shuangta Site in Baicheng City, Jilin ……(501)
Heilongjiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology,
The Report on the Excavation of the Fenglin City Site in Youyi County, Heilongjiang in 2000 ………………………………………………………(539)
ON THE BRONZE SWORDS IN THE WESTERN AND EASTERN ZHOU PERIODS
First, this paper classified the bronze swords of the Western and Eastern Zhou Periods into types and subtypes with the basic method of archaeological typology (except for some with special forms and small quantities) and clarified their relative chronologies and then estimated their absolute dates by which established the chronological frame of the bronze swords of the Western and Eastern Zhou Periods. Based on this, the author analyzed the origins and developments of the different types of bronze swords and discussed their relevant backgrounds. The author pointed out that the bronze swords of the Western and Eastern Zhou Periods could be classified into three systems: flat-hilted swords, cylindrical hilted swords and Northern Frontier-style daggers.
At latest at the end of the Shang Dynasty, the flat-hilted swords emerged in the southwestern China and then diffused into the Shaanxi Plains; along with the enfeoffment of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the flat-hilted swords was introduced into the Central Plains and the areas nearby the Yanshan Mountains, where they ran into the Northern Frontier-style daggers and brought about the Qin-style daggers and the flat-hilted sword of Type Ad. The Type Ad sword was fully developed around the mid and late Spring-and-Autumn Period and diffused southward in the transitional period between the Spring-and-Autumn and Warring-States Periods and was gradually popular in the Central Plains and became the main form of the long swords in the later times (the Qin and Han Dynasties). The cylindrical hilted swords were originated in the southeastern China around the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and popular in the Wu and Yue regions since the early Western Zhou Dynasty; since the mid Spring-and-Autumn Period, this style was introduced into the Chu, Qi, Lu States and the Central Plains and in the Warring-States Period, the Wu-Yue-style swords became popular in all of the states. The Northern Frontier-style daggers have had influences to the forms and casting techniques of the bronze swords in the Central Plains during the Western Zhou Dynasty.
In the Western Zhou Dynasty, some feudal states have been able to cast swords independently. As weapons, casting sword was an affair exclusively belonging to the royal court; the fact that the feudal states made swords themselves proved that these states have had the authority and techniques to cast bronze swords. In the mid and late Spring-and-Autumn Period, sword casting techniques was popular in all of the states. Down to the Warring-States Period, even common citizens could cast swords. Also in this period, the quantity of swords was rather large but the forms and styles are not that diversified, which showed that in this period the sword casting had some kind of standards, or sword casting had become standardized production.
THE RESEARCH ON THE BRONZES OF THE ZHOU DYNASTY IN THE SOUTHERN ANHUI ALONG THE YANGTZE RIVER
The southern Anhui, as a geographic unit, could be divided into the Yangtze River system region in the north and the Qiantang River system region in the south by the Huangshan Mountain. Since the 1970s, sets of bronzes have been unearthed in the regions of southern Anhui along the Yangtze River, the main localities of which are Dunshang in Chizhou City, Wangcun and Longgang in Qingyang County, Xielong and Zhongming in Tongling City, Liuchunyan and Handun in Wuhu City, Tangjiadun and Suncun in Fanchang County, Zhengxing in Xuancheng City and Shizipu in Xuancheng City, etc. The academic circle has had rich research achievements on the periodization and chronology of these bronzes, the ones of which by Professors Yin Difei, Ma Chengyuan, Li Xueqin, Zou Houben, Zhang Changshou and Li Guoliang are the most significant.
This paper selected 12 bronze assemblages unearthed from important units (such as hoards or burials) and with clear coexistence relationships, and then chose some typical vessels such as fangding
-tripod with sagging belly, ding
-tripod with globular belly, jar-shaped ding
-tripod with small mouth, ding
-tripod with lid and attached handles, ding
-tripod with outturning feet, yan
-steamer with separated body, li
-cauldron with rope-shaped handles, zun
-vessel with dragon-shaped handles, ding
-tripod with animal head, zun
-vessel with animal head, he
-pitcher with ring foot, he
-pitcher with curving handle, pan
-plate with ring foot, three-legged yi
-pourer, etc. to compare with their counterparts with clear dates unearthed in Nanjing and Zhengjiang area, the region of Anhui Province to the north of the Yangtze River and the Central Plains, and referred to the researches on the periodization and chronology of the archaeological cultures focused on the potteries, and finally established the chronological sequence of the bronzes unearthed in the regions of southern Anhui along the Yangtze River.
This paper preliminarily discussed the cultural elements of the bronze remains of the Zhou Dynasty in southern Anhui and the temporal changes of these elements. The comparative studies with the nearby areas showed that the bronzes found in the regions of southern Anhui along the Yangtze River accepted more influences from the Central Plains and the area between the Yangtze and Huai Rivers; the intercommunications and interactions of the bronze cultures along the Yangtze River could explain the historic process of the southward migration of the Shu People and Shu Culture in the Western Zhou Dynasty and Spring-and-Autumn Period.
THE NEOLITHIC REMAINS OF THE SHUANGTA SITE IN BAICHENG CITY, JILIN
Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University
Jilin Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
From August to October 2007, the Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University and Jilin Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology condusted a joint rescue excavation to the western part of the Shuangta Site in Baicheng, Jilin Province, by which a total area of 1419 sq m has been excavated. Remains from the first and second phases of the site belonged to the Neolithic Age.
The remains of the first phase include pits, ditches, postholes, potsherds deposit layers and burials. The potteries mainly consist of coarse grey wares tempered with shell dust and brown-grey or brown-yellow wares. Commonly seen forms are jars with tubular belly, jars with round belly, jars with contract rim, storage jars, basins, yu
-broad mouthed jars, dou
-stemmed bowls, bowls and cups. The surfaces of most of the pottery wares are plain, but some jars have one to five attached bands parallel to the rim on which small holes have been pressed or stamped. There are a few samples with attached bands forming geometric patterns. The shapes of the potteries are not very regular; the thicknesses of their walls are not even, and part of the wares' surface showed evidence that they have been constructed by clay bar-coiling method.
The morphological features of the potteries of the first phase of Shuangta Site are clearly different from that of all the previously known Neolithic pottery industries in the region of middle and lower reaches of the Nenjiang River. These remains belonged to a totally new Neolithic cultural type, and the technical features of the pottery assemblage showed very early traits. The 14
C analysis of the human bones and the thermo-luminescence measurements of the potsherds showed that the date of these remains was at least 10 ka BP. These are the earliest Neolithic remains discovered so far in Northeast China.
The remains of the second phase at the Shuangta Site found in this excavation were only four tombs. The grave goods include pottery cups with impressed pockmark pattern, jade ornaments with animal mask design and jade bracelets. In the non-scientifically unearthed artifacts gathered in our survey, there were also jade double bi
-discs, jade pendants and bowls with pockmark pattern. The style of these jade objects is very similar to that of the Hongshan Culture, which indicates that they are roughly contemporary. But pockmark pattern on these potteries have distinctive local characteristics. According to our present knowledge, the type of remains characterized by pockmarked potteries is mainly distributed in the Baicheng area in Jilin Province, in the southwest of Hinggan League and in Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia. The observation of all the features show that, except for remains with pockmark pattern, the smoothed surface potteries are relatively tall in shape, some have impressed checkerboard pattern, the tubular jars are also relatively thin and high; these characteristics are very different from that of the Hongshan Culture in the western Liaoning. The tombs' structures and the burial customs have even greater differences with that of the typical Hongshan Culture's burials. Therefore, these remains certainly belonged to a new archaeological culture.
The discovery of the remains of the first and the second phases at the Shuangta Site and the confirmation of two distinctive archaeological cultures lay a firm foundation for the construction of the chronological sequence of the Neolithic archaeological cultures of the western part of the Songnen Plain, and further articulate specific relationships with other archaeological cultures.
THE REPORT ON THE EXCAVATION OF THE FENGLIN CITY SITE IN YOUYI COUNTY, HEILONGJIANG IN 2000
Heilongjiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
The Fenglin City Site located about 300 m to the west of Fenglin Village in Chengfu Township, Youyi County is on the floodplain to the north of the middle reach of Qixing River. It is in an irregular plan and can be divided into nine districts. District 7 located in the center of the city site is in square plan with a perimeter of 490 m. To comprehensively understand the connotation and nature of the remains of the archaeological cultures during the Han Dynasty through the Three-Kingdoms Period in the Qixing River Valley, from 1998 to 2000, Heilongjiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology conducted excavations to the Fenglin City Site located in the center of the Qixing River Valley for three successive years, the focus of which was on the District 7. The results of the excavation in 2000 showed that the District 7 contained remains of the early and late phases, which further extended and deepened our understandings to the cultural connotations of this district of the Fenglin City Site.
The recovered remains of the early phase included the house foundation F23, which was a semi-subterranean structure covering an area of about 700 sq m, in which 20 large postholes were arranged orderly in rows and columns, forming a grid of four bays in transverse direction and three bays in longitudinal direction facing east. Along the bottom of the four sides of the wall, ditches for erecting walls were dug, in which densely arranged small postholes were found. Referring to the characteristics of the few artifacts unearthed from this house foundation, we estimated that its date was in the Han Dynasty.
The house foundations of the late phase were 10 to 30 sq m in size, all of which were semi-subterranean structures. They could be classified into two types by the presence and absence of the kang
(heatable earthen beds): one type had L-shaped kang
along the two side walls and the other type did not have kang
. The potteries unearthed from the remains of the late phase included jars, dou
-stemmed bowls, bowls, cups, zeng
-steamers, vases, jugs, etc. The remains of the late phase had clear cultural features and new connotations belonging to a new archaeological culture which is named as Fenglin Culture, the date of which coincided with the Three-Kingdoms through the Sixteen-Kingdoms Periods.