The Typological Studies on the Zuan and Zao on the Oracle Bones ………… (147)
The Inscription of Wo Fangding and the Funeral and Sacrificial Ceremonies of the Western Zhou Dynasty …………………………………………………… (185)
The Temporal Sequence and the Occupants of the Vassal Kings of the Chu State of the Early Western Han Dynasty in Xuzhou Area and Relevant Issues ………………………………………………………………………… (213)
Anhui Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Bengbu Museum,
The Report of the Excavation of the Tomb of Bai, the Lord of the Zhongli State in the Spring-and-Autumn Period …………………………………… (239)
THE TYPOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE ZUAN AND ZAO ON THE ORACLE BONES
By the chance of assorting the oracle bones collected in Carnegie Museum, the author of this paper closely observed the zuan (circular hollows) and zao (lenticular hollows) on these oracle bones and systematically studied the types, developing processes and rules of the zuan and zao on the oracle bones unearthed from Yinxu Site.
This paper classified the zuan and zao on the oracle bones into five types and twenty subtypes, interpreted how these zuan and zao have developed and evolved and synthesized some developing rules, two of which are the most noticeable: first, the small circular zuan and wheel-cut oblong zao were mainly used on the oracle bones during the reign of King Wu Ding, and the oblong zao on the early oracle bones were mostly made by wheel-cutting, and therefore these two zuan and zao types have strong chronological meanings. Second, the length of the directly chiseled oblong zao was getting longer and longer as time went by, and reached its extremity in the “No-name Group” and “He Group” of the “Village South System” and “Village North System”, respectively. On the oracle bones of both groups, oblong zao as long as 3 cm have been seen. This length reduced down to the oracle bones of “Huang Group”, the longest zao on the oracle bones of which was around 2 cm or so.
The developing pattern and rules of the types of zuan and zao on the oracle bones from Yinxu Site revealed by our studies can be used to testify that the date of the oracle bones of the “Li Group” was around the later period of King Wu Ding's reign to King Zu Geng's reign.
THE INSCRIPTION OF WO FANGDING AND THE FUNERAL AND SACRIFICIAL CEREMONIES OF THE WESTERN ZHOU DYNASTY
The Wo Fangding-cauldron unearthed in Luoyang is dated to the early Western Zhou Dynasty by its style and the date-keeping format in its inscription. The lid and body both bear identical 43-character inscription, the content of which is about the procedure from the beginning of the funeral ceremony to the interment, so it is important textural material for the research on the funeral rites of the Western Zhou Dynasty.
The maker of this fangding, whose name was “Wo”, was a member of the minor lineage (xiaozong) of the Ruo Clan, and this fangding was a ritual vessel for offering sacrifices to Fu Ji (Father Ji). At the beginning, the inscription noted that the vessel maker offered yuji (exorcising sacrifice) and xueji (blood sacrifice) to two couples of ancestors, who were Zu Yi祖乙 (Ancestor Yi) and Bi Yi妣乙 (Ancestress Yi) and Zu Ji祖己 (Ancestor Ji) and Bi Gui妣癸 (Ancestress Gui), which reflected the chaomiaodian (temple audience) ceremony in the funeral procedure. Chaomiaodian meant to bid farewell to the ancestors: the temple of Zu Yi and Bi Yi was the paternal and maternal temple of Fu Ji and the temple of Zu Ji and Bi Gui was that of the ancestral temple of Fu Ji; however, to the vessel maker, both were ancestral temples. After the chaomiaodian, yueji (summer sacrifice) and baosaiji (thanksgiving sacrifice) were separately offered to the two ancestresses, which reflected the zudian ceremony in the funeral procedure. Zudian meant turning the hearse outward to prepare for starting to the grave. The chaomiandian was conducted to the paternal and maternal temples first and then to the ancestral temple; the zudian was only conducted to the ancestresses: both events showed that in the funeral rites, the ancestors were treated like guests, the closer the earlier. The inscription noted that after the sacrifice offerings were removed, the coffin was lifted to the hearse and the daqiandian and guan ceremonies were conducted. The daqiandian (interment) was the most solemn ceremony in the funeral procedure, which was the final for the deceased as human being. The offerings of the daqiandian for the shi (inferior officer) rank was shaolao (five ding-cauldrons of sacrifice); when the ceremony was finished, the removed offerings, which were lamb and pork, were wrapped into two packages and interred with the coffin, which was called “baodian”. Following the baodian ceremony, the gift list-reading ceremony was held, by which the gifts received in the funeral procedure were checked in. All of these steps were clearly recorded in the inscription of Wo Fangding.
Referring to the historic literature, this paper closely examined the funeral procedure reflected in the inscription of Wo Fangding and testified that this inscription was not only a funeral oration but a complete and systematic record of the funeral rite of the Western Zhou Dynasty and can be mutually verified with the historic literature. The vessel maker was an adherent of the perished Shang Dynasty; therefore, this inscription is significantly meaningful for both the researches on the funeral rites of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and relevant sacrificial systems and the interpretations of the ancient classics. This paper also studied the meanings of the guan ceremony of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the relevant sacrificial inscriptions.
THE TEMPORAL SEQUENCE AND THE OCCUPANTS OF THE VASSAL KINGS OF THE CHU STATE OF THE EARLY WESTERN HAN DYNASTY IN XUZHOU AREA AND RELEVANT ISSUES
In recent years, eight tombs of the vassal kings of the Chu State of the Western Han Dynasty have been found and excavated in Xuzhou area, four of which have been agreed to be that of the earliest vassal kings: the ones at Chuwang Hill, Shizi Hill (Lion Hill), Beidong Hill and Tuolan Hill. These four tombs had large sizes and yielded rich grave goods, which have important academic values for the researches on the politics, economy and society of the feudatory Chu State of the Western Han Dynasty. However, because most of the details about these tombs have not been published yet, the scholars have many controversies on the issues such as the temporal sequence and the occupants of these tombs, which sharply restricted the deepening of the relevant researches.
Focused on the tomb structures and grave goods, this paper discussed the temporal sequence and the occupants of the tombs of the vassal kings of the Chu State in the early Western Han Dynasty. Through the comparative researches on the structures and layouts, opening techniques and protective facilities of the tombs at Shizi Hill, Beidong Hill and Tuolan Hill, this paper clarified the succession of their developments; meanwhile, by analyzing the grave goods of these three tomb which bore clear temporal features, such as the jades, potteries, coins and seals, this paper further clarified the exact sequence of these three tombs, which were that at Shizi Hill, Beidong Hill and Tuolan Hill, from the earliest to the latest. In this order, referring to the durations of the reigns of the first three vassal kings of the Chu State in the Western Han Dynasty, as well as the scales of these three tombs, this paper drew the conclusion that the occupant of the vassal king tomb at Shizi Hill was Liu Jiao, who was the first generation of the vassal king of the Chu State; the occupant of the tomb at Beidong Hill was Liu Ying (or Yingke), who was the second generation of the vassal king of the Chu State; and that of the tomb at Tuoulan Hill was Liu Wu, who was the third generation of the vassal king of the Chu State. Based on this conclusion, the issues such as the occupant of the vassal king tomb at Chuwang Hill, the strange structures of the two vassal king tombs at Shizi Hill and Beidong Hill and the developing and evolving rules of the vassal queen tombs and their construction dates are also discussed and explanations are given; moreover, the sequence of the entire 12 generations of vassal kings of the Chu State in the Western Han Dynasty is reconsidered and new understandings on the developing and evolving rules of these tombs are put forward.
THE REPORT OF THE EXCAVATION OF THE TOMB OF BAI, THE LORD OF THE ZHONGLI STATE IN THE SPRING-AND-AUTUMN PERIOD
Anhui Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Bengbu Museum
The tomb of Bai, the Lord of the Zhongli State located in Shuangdun Village, Bengbu City, Anhui is excavated by Anhui Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Bengbu Museum in December 2006 through August 2008. This tomb is a large-scale vertical earthen shaft pit tomb with tumulus on the ground; the grave is in a circular plan with a ring of primary soil ledge 2 m below the opening. The tomb passageway is situated to the due east of the grave. In the tumulus and filling earth, the “five-color soil”, the white clay cushion, “radial lines”, earthen mounds and “clay figurine walls” are recovered, and the tomb chamber structure was in a cross-shaped plan. The structure is original and the remains are complex; the grave goods are very rich, over 500 items of which including bronze bells, ding-tripods, fu-vessels, yan-steamers, dou-stemmed bowls, he-pitchers, lei-wine vessels, arrowheads, ge-dagger axes, ji-halberds, swords, horse bits and chariot hubcaps, painted pottery jars, hard pottery jars with impressed patterns, music stones, jade ornaments and large amount of lacquered wooden objects are unearthed. What special is that it yields more than 2000 pieces of clay figurines. The inscription of “Zhongli Jun Bai (Lord of Zhongli [named] Bai)” on the bronzes shows that this tomb is a royal mausoleum of the Zhongli State in the Spring-and-Autumn Period.
This tomb is the first discovery of the exact physical materials about the Zhongli State which proved the historic fact of the existence of the ancient Zhongli State recorded in the historic literatures. The unique circular structure and the cultural remains with profound and mysterious connotations in the grave summarized the recognition and memory of the people to the Heaven, Earth and human beings thousands of years ago, and can be seen as an epitome of the human society in the true sense. This tomb is an innovation in the burial designing history; it started a new burial custom and type of the Zhongli State, provided new topics for the burial archaeology and expanded the prospect; it also provided valuable materials for the explorations on the vanished burial customs and cultures in ancient times, so its discovery has important values and meanings for the historic researches.