The Relationship Between the Shang People and the Ethnic Groups in the Northern Frontier Zone Reflected by the Northern-style Bronzes Unearthed in Yinxu ………………………………………………………………………… (1)
Restudies on the Periodization of the Caves and Niches of the Northern Dynasties at Maijishan Grottoes Based on the Costume Styles of the Buddha Images, Arrangements of Motifs and the Imitations of Canopies and Wooden Structures …………………………………………………………………… (29)
Hubei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology et al.,
The Excavation of the Tuojiawan Site in Yunxi County, Hubei ………………(59)
Art Research Institute of Shanghai University et al.
The Tombs of the Han Dynasty at Xi Longgui Village in Luquan City, Hebei ……………………………………………………………………… (111)
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SHANG PEOPLE AND THE ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE NORTHERN FRONTIER ZONE REFLECTED BY THE NORTHERN-STYLE BRONZES UNEARTHED IN YINXU
Through analyzing the oracle bone inscriptions related to the harassments of the ethnic groups of the Northern Frontier Zone to the northern and western frontiers of the Shang Dynasty, this paper suggests that the chiefdoms of the northern ethnic groups, such as Qiong Fang, Tu Fang, Fang Fang, etc., were mainly living in the mountainous areas of present-day western and northwestern Shanxi, northeastern Shaanxi and northern Hebei Provinces, and analyzes the characteristics of the bronzes of the northern frontier style unearthed from these areas and the types of bronze cultures to which they belonged. Based on these suggestions and analyses, this paper discusses the northern-style bronzes unearthed from the sacrificial pits, attendant burial pits and tombs in Yinxu Site and their relationships with these types of bronze cultures and reveals that the northern-style bronzes frequently seen in the remains of the Yinxu Site, especially in the ones in the late stage of Yinxu Phase I and the Yinxu Phase II (around the reigns of Kings Wu Ding and Zu Jia), are the embodiment of the frequent warfare of the Shang people against the ethnic groups in the Northern Frontier Zone, and warfare was the main way of the communication between them. Moreover, this paper discusses the significance of the communication of the Shang people with the northern ethnic groups for the improvement of the interchange between the Shang Culture and the cultures in the Eurasian Steppe area.
RESTUDIES ON THE PERIODIZATION OF THE CAVES AND NICHES OF THE NORTHERN DYNASTIES AT MAIJISHAN GROTTOES BASED ON THE COSTUME STYLES OF THE BUDDHA IMAGES, ARRANGEMENTS OF MOTIFS AND THE IMITATIONS OF CANOPIES AND WOODEN STRUCTURES
The Maijishan Grottoes have 221 numbered caves and niches, of which the ones opened in the Northern Dynasties, have the most quantity, the largest scale and the longest duration. Since the 1980s, the issue of the periodization of Majishan Grottoes has been continuously concerned by the scholars. Based on the previous researches by these scholars, this paper selects the costume styles of the Buddha images, the arrangements of motifs and 99 caves and niches with relatively complete imitations of canopies and wooden structures preserved in or in front of them to study with methods of archaeological typology and then discusses the periodization of the caves and niches of Maijishan Grottoes. By the evolution sequences of the abovementioned contents, the caves and niches of Maijishan Grottoes can be divided into five phases. Referring to the caves and niches with exact dates or clearer evolution sequences in Yungang, Longmen, Xiangtang Grottoes of the Northern Dynasties and the Qixiashan Grottoes of the Southern Dynasties opened with the sponsors by the imperial court or aristocrats and the Buddhist sculptures of the Southern Dynasties unearthed in Chengdu region, as well as the historic literature and the inscriptions, this paper speculates that the Phase I of Maijishan Grottoes corresponds to the beginning of the reign of Emperor Xiaowen (471 AD) to the Jingming Era in the reign of Emperor Xuanwu (500-503 AD), Phase II corresponds to the Jingming Era (500-503 AD) to the downfall of the Northern Wei Dynasty (534 AD), Phase III corresponds to the Western Wei Dynasty (535-556 AD), Phase IV corresponds to the Northern Zhou Dynasty (before the Dharma Disaster, 557-574 AD) and Phase V, the Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD). The difference of this paper's periodization from the previous ones is that the contents of the remains subjected to typological analyses in this paper are more clear and definite; what special is that the costume styles of the Buddha images, which are preserved relatively intact and have the longest temporal duration and the widest spatial scope, are subjected to the typological analyses. The new conclusions on the periodization of the Maijishan Grottoes of this paper can be seen as the ones drawn from the comprehensive views of the evolutions of the Buddhist grottoes and the changes of the individual Buddhist sculptures in China.
THE EXCAVATION OF THE TUOJIAWAN SITE IN YUNXI COUNTY, HUBEI
Hubei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
South-North Water Transfer (SNWT) Office, Hubei Provincial Cultural Heritage Administration
and Yunxi County Museum
Tuojiawan Site is located on the secondary terrace on the left bank of Han River in the sixth section of Yaziwan Village (Tuojiawan natural village) in Guanyin Town, Yunxi County. The extant remains cover the areas of about 4 ha. To coordinate with the middle route of the South-North Water Transfer Project, from March 2007 to May 2008, we conducted two coring surveys and three excavations to Tuojiawan Site. The coring surveys covered 61915 sq m and the excavations uncovered 2017 sq m. in total, 82 excavation grids were dug, 79 of which measured 5 m by 5 m and three were extensions. The three excavations recovered 98 remains from the Neolithic Age to the Ming and Qing Dynasties, yielding large amounts of artifacts made of pottery, porcelain, glazed pottery, stone, bronze, iron, etc., most of which belonged to the Eastern Zhou Period. The remains of the Neolithic Age found in Tuojiawan Site varied in dates, but the main part were that of the Phase III of Qinglongquan Culture. Therefore, this site would belong to Qinglongquan or Shijiahe Cultures. The remains of the Eastern Zhou Period were that of the mid Spring-and-Autumn through the early Warring-States Period, the basic assemblage of which is that of pottery li-cauldron, yu-basin, basin, jar and dou-stemmed bowl belonging to Chu Culture. On the pottery jug unearthed from M1 of the early Western Han Dynasty, the name of the owner “Shi Gong” was engraved; on a cylindrical roof tile of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the name of the workshop or the craftsman was inscribed. The porcelains of the Ming and Qing Dynasties were the products of the folk kilns.
The excavation showed that since the Neolithic Age, Tuojiawan Site used to be a large-scale residential area until the Qing Dynasty; it was finally abandoned as a dump. Tuojiawan Site, which is located in the upper reach of Han River, is one of the remains of the Chu Culture in the most northwest excavated to date in Hubei. This indicated that at latest in the mid Spring-and-Autumn Period, the Chu State has reached the upper reaches of Han River, and provided new materials for the research of Chu Culture.
THE TOMBS OF THE HAN DYNASTY AT XI LONGGUI VILLAGE IN LUQUAN CITY, HEBEI
Department of Archeology, School of History & Culture (Tourism), Sichuan University ,Art Research Institute of Shanghai University
Hebei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics
Shijiazhuang Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics
and Commission for Preservation of Cultural Relics, Luquan City
The Xi Longgui Cemetery of the Han Dynasty was located on the broad hilly area on the east side of Taihang Mountains, which belongs to the Xi Longgui and Nan Longgui Villages of Luquan City, Hebei Province. In July 2009 through the end of January 2010, rescue excavation was conducted to the tombs of this cemetery on the way of the canal of the South-North Water Transfer Project, which recovered 29 tombs and two pottery kilns of the Han Dynasty. All of the tombs had been disturbed in various extents; 26 of them were brick-chamber tombs, which could be classified into single-chamber, double-chamber and triple-chamber tombs, all had ramp passages; three of them were rectangular vertical earthen pit tombs without passages.
The remaining grave goods were mainly potteries, which were mostly models, animal figurines and vessels for daily use, the types were ovens, wells, houses, animal pens, chicken and dog figurines, pots, fu-cauldrons, jugs, jars, basins, bowls, plates, plates with holes, cups, trays, nested cases, lian-cosmetic cases, round cases, ladles, lamps, flat tiles, cylindrical tiles, etc. The potteries were usually coated with white slips. The other grave goods included bronze mirrors, bronze coins, iron shovels, glass eardrops, grindstones, and lead horse ornaments, cap ornaments and quatrefoil fittings, etc.
These tombs could be dated into three phases, which were the early and mid Eastern Han, late Eastern Han and the end of Eastern Han Dynasty; they could be zoned into three groups which might have represented three quarters of the cemetery belonging to different groups or clans of the people. The tomb occupants would be the richer ones of the local people and the occupants of the earthen pit tombs were infants or children.
The two pottery kilns were found on the margin of the cemetery; their dates were the same as that of the tombs and their products were the bricks and tiles for building the tombs. In the strata of the workshop remains nearby the cemetery, large amounts of the architectural debris and a pottery kiln were found, because of which the workshop remains was suggested to be that for making brick and tile pastes for the cemetery which were baked in these kilns. The discovery of these pottery kilns provided new materials for solving the problem of the resources of the bricks and tiles for building the tombs in this cemetery.