The Cemeteries of Liangzhu Culture and the Civilized Society Reflected by Them ……………………………………………………………………………… (401 )
Researches on the Bronze Vessels Unearthed in the Haidai Region ……………… (423 )
The Structure, Date and Occupant of the Tomb Reshui-1 in Dulan, Qinghai …………………………………………………………………………… ( 467)
Guangxi Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology et al.,
The Excavation of the Tombs of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the Three-Kingdoms Period at Liaowei Village in Hepu County, Guangxi …………………………… ( 489 )
THE CEMETERIES OF LIANGZHU CULTURE AND THE CIVILIZED SOCIETY REFLECTED BY THEM
This paper trimmed the tombs of the cemeteries of Liangzhu Culture at Fuquanshan, Maqiao and Yaoshan: first, through the sequencing of the grave goods, the periodizations of the cemeteries are studied and therefore this paper defined six burial zones of Liangzhu Culture by the smallest temporal span which can be sure with the present conditions. These burial zones are: Fuquanshan Phase I, Fuquanshan Phase II, Fuquanshan Phase III, the tombs of Maqiao Cemetery excavated in the 1960s, the tombs of Maqiao Cemetery excavated in the 1990s and Yaoshan. Second, started from the yue-battle axes made of jade or stone unearthed from these tombs, through the analyses to the categories and quantities of the grave goods, this paper summarized the hierarchies of the tombs in the six burial zones, and explored the statuses and positions of the occupants of the tombs in different hierarchies. The results are that the tombs in the three phases of Fuquanshan Cemetery belonged to four hierarchies: the highest is the controllers of the divine right and royal power, who were at the top of the society of Liangzhu Culture; the second class is the aristocrats possessing rather much wealth, enjoying rather high social statuses and grasping military power; the third class is that of the warriors who were also carrying out crafts; the lowest class is that of common social members with self-supporting economy but without military power. The tombs of Maqiao Cemetery excavated in the 1960s belonged to the members of the last two classes of Fuquanshan Cemetery; the tombs of Maqiao Cemetery excavated in the 1990s basically belonged to the members of the lowest class of Fuquanshan Cemetery; the occupants of the Yaoshan Cemetery all belonged to the two highest classes, including the paramount rulers holding divine right and the aristocrats grasping only the military power. Third, based on the differences among the statuses of the tomb occupants, this paper interpreted the natures of the societies reflected by each of the burial zones and finally put forward the suggestion that the development of the society of Liangzhu Culture has surpassed the royal power stage and entered the civilized society of “divine ruler”.
RESEARCHES ON THE BRONZE VESSELS UNEARTHED IN THE HAIDAI REGION
The bronze culture of the Eastern Zhou Period in Haidai region (the region to the east of Mount Tai in present-day Shandong Province) takes a very important position in the bronze culture system of China. The systematic researches on the bronze vessels of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in Haidai region are helpful for making clear the features of the bronze cultures in other areas and exploring the deep-seated reasons for the prosperity of the cultures in Haidai region during the Eastern Zhou Period. Moreover, the researches on the bronzes of the Haidai region are relatively lagging behind that on the other regions, so the systematic researches on the bronzes of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in Haidai region are important issues of the Shang and Zhou Archaeology in this region.
The categories, types, decorative patterns and evolutions of the bronze vessels of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in Haidai region usually corresponded to that in the Central Plains; essentially, they belonged to the Zhou Culture. Meanwhile, because of the historic and geographic reasons, the bronze vessels of the Eastern Zhou Period in Haidai region also have some local features. The development and evolution of the bronze vessels of the Eastern Zhou Period in Haidai region can be divided into six phases, which are the Succeeding Phase, the Booming Phase, the Flourishing Phase, the Declining Phase, the Transforming Phase and the Vanishing Phase. By the local features, the bronze culture of the Eastern Zhou Period can be zoned into the Southern Shandong, Northern Shandong, Eastern Shandong and Southeastern Shandong, and the similarities and differences among these zones were also changing along with the time.
What noticeable is that in the Eastern Zhou Period, the innovative categories (such as bronze zhou-vessel) and types (bronze pan-washing basin with rope-shaped lugs and ring-shaped handles and legless yi-pourer with flat bottom) created in Haidai region especially the cultural zone of the Eastern Yi people were introduced into the Central Plains and the surrounding areas in large amounts, forming a current of “the westward diffusion of the eastern vessels” which is greatly meaningful. This phenomenon showed that as an important power in the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasties, Eastern Yi people still had some influence to the Central Plains in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty. The cultural communication between the Haidai region and the Central Plains was a two-way process, the results of which was not the changing to the Zhou style, but the cultures in the Central Plains also showed some tendencies of changing to the Eastern Yi style. During the conception and maturation of the Chinese Civilization, the nutrition transmitted by the Eastern Yi culture was never interrupted.
THE STRUCTURE, DATE AND OCCUPANT OF THE TOMB RESHUI-1 IN DULAN, QINGHAI
The Tomb Reshui-1 located in the Reshui valley 10 km southeast of the Chaqan Osso Town, Dulan County, Qinghai Province has been excavated during 1982-1985 by the Qinghai Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology. This tomb was dated to the mid 8th century (or a bit later) in the light of the artifacts, and was ascribed to be the remains of Tuyuhun people under the suzerainty of the Tubo Empire. Tomb Reshui-1 basically consists of the tumulus in trapezoidal plan and trapezoidal elevation, the cross-shaped grave and the front sacrificial pits. Both the spatial organization of the entire cemetery and the individual tomb structure are in high similarity with that of Tubo tombs in central Tibet.
Through an analysis to silks and gold and silver wares unearthed from the tomb, this paper dates Reshui-1 to the early Tang Dynasty, more precisely, from the end of the 7th century to the beginning of the 8th century. During this period, the Tuyuhun Kingdom, who had stood on the northern Tibetan Plateau for over 350 years, was annexed by the Tubo Empire. Ancient Tibetan accounts revealed that Tuyuhun's administrative system was still remaining to be manipulated by the Tubo central government, and the royal family was still keeping the marriage relationship with the Tubo royal family. Some names of Tuyuhun kings nominated by the Tubo tsanpos were also preserved, among which “dBon da rgyal khri zung”, who had married a Princess Khribangs of the Tubo Empire in 689 and died in 694, very possibly was the occupant of Reshui-1. Ancient Tibetan and Chinese texts also excluded the possibility that it was a high-ranking Tibetan official appointed by the Tubo central government to the Tuyuhun region.
THE EXCAVATION OF THE TOMBS OF THE EASTERN HAN DYNASTY AND THE THREE-KINGDOMS PERIOD AT LIAOWEI VILLAGE IN HEPU COUNTY, GUANGXI
Guangxi Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology
College of Historical Culture and Tourism, Guangxi Normal University
Liaowei Cemetery was located to the northwest of Liaowei Village about 4 km to the southeast of Hepu County seat, Guangxi. In August 2008 through March 2009, a rescue excavation recovered 32 tombs in this cemetery. These tombs were arranged in a belt-shaped plan stretching in northeast-southwest orientation, and clearly divided into the northeast, middle and southwest zones. 10 tombs have tumuli reserved, that of M14 among which was the largest, the remaining height of which was 4.3 m and the diameter was 69 m. Except for M13b and M16, which were brick-timber structure, all of the tombs were brick-chamber tombs. Six of the tombs were joint tombs, including three tandem joint tombs in the same grave and three parallel joint tombs in separate graves. All of the tombs had been looted before excavation, the skeletons of the tomb occupants all decayed and were disturbed; only coffin board ashes and coffin nails were left and the original burial positions could no longer be known. By building material and structure, these tombs could be classified into seven types, which are longitudinal vaulted roof tombs, tandem joint tombs, dome-shaped and vaulted joint roof tombs, longitudinal and transverse vaulted and dome-shaped roof joint tombs, longitudinal and transverse vaulted roof tombs, double dome-shaped roof tombs and brick-timber structure tombs. In total 476 pieces of grave goods were unearthed, most of which were from M13a, M13b, M14 and M16. Most of the grave goods were potteries, while some bronzes, iron implements, silver wares, jades, glass wares, talc objects and string ornaments composed with beads made of crystal, agate, amber, glass, etc. Most of the grave goods were damaged, the bronzes and iron implements were severely rusted and the lacquer wares all decayed with only the lacquer peels left. Estimated by the tomb types and the grave goods styles, seven tombs belonged to the late Eastern Han Dynasty and the other 25 belonged to the Three-Kingdoms Period. The unearthed sodium-calcium glass objects, greenish-blue glazed pottery vase with handle and bronze cymbal provided important new materials for the researches on the Hepu Port on the “Maritime Silk Road” in the Han Dynasty. The tombs of the Three-Kingdoms Period in this cemetery are significantly valuable for understanding the cultural connotations of the Hepu Han tombs and their periodization, evolution and chronological sequence in the late Eastern Han Dynasty to the Three-Kingdoms Period.