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HomePublicationJournalsKaogu (Archaeology)
Kaogu 2013-4
From:Chinese Archaeology  Writer:  Date:2013-05-31

Main Contents

Institute of Archaeology,CASS,The Xueguanpu Cemetery in Luliang County , Yunnan

The Excavation of the Guoqi Site at Daoyi Town, Shenyang City

Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University, The Excavation of the Guoqi Site at Daoyi Town, Shenyang City

Yantai Museum and Longkou Museum, The Excavation of the Tombs of the Jin Dynasty at Dong Wutong Village in Longkou City, Shandong

Nanjing Municipal Museum, The Tombs of the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties at Xishanqiao in Yuhuatai District, Nanjing City

Luoyang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, The Tombs of the Five-Dynasties Period and the Song and Jin Dynasties at Miaobei Village in Luoyang City, Henan

Huo Wei, The Archaeological Exploration on the Early Settlements of Nomadic Cultures in Tibet

Cao Dingyun, On the Narration of “Your Fathers of the Yin Dynasty Had Their Archives and Statutes” and Relevant Issues -- And the Interpretation of the Special Character “Dian (Archive)” in No. 1616 of the Oracle Bone Collections in Great Britain

Yin Hongbing, The Archaeological Cultures of the Zhou Dynasty in Xiling Gorge Area and the Early Chu Culture

Zhao Junjie and Ma Jian, The Evolution of the Mural Tombs of the Mid Koguryo Period in Pyongyang and Nearby Areas

Guo Meng, The Cha?ne Opératoire Theory and the Studies on the Pottery Manufacturing Technology

The Xueguanpu Cemetery in Luliang County , Yunnan

KEYWORDS: Yunnan     Luliang County     Xueguanpu Cemetery     Western Han Dynasty    Southwestern Yi (Ancient Ethnic Group)

ABSTRACT: In 2012, 160 tombs of Xueguanpu Cemetery in Luliang County , Yunnan were recovered. All of the tombs were vertical earthen shaft pit tombs, the grave goods unearthed from which were bronzes including swords, ge-dagger axes, button-shaped ornaments, belt hooks, seals, mirrors, coins, etc., iron implements including spearheads, axes, knives, etc., jades, ornaments made of bone and glass, stone casting molds, and so on. The bronze mirrors with “riguang (sunshine)” inscription and wuzhu coins and the iron implements in the grave goods confirmed that the date of some of these tombs were the Western Han Dynasty.
 
The Excavation of the Guoqi Site at Daoyi Town, Shenyang City

KEYWORDS: Shenyang    Guoqi Site    Gaotaishan Culture    Xinle Upper Culture    Shang and Zhou Dynasties    Western Han Dynasty

ABSTRACT: In July through October 2007, two terms of rescue excavation were jointly conducted by Shenyang Municipal Institute of Archaeology and Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin to Guoqi Site in Shenyang City. The remains revealed by the excavation can be dated into two phases.  The remains of the Phase I belonged to the Xinle Upper Culture from the late Shang Dynasty to the early Western Zhou Dynasty. The remains of Phase II belonged to the Western Han Dynasty. This excavation is significantly meaningful for the understanding to the Xinle Upper Culture and the deciphering of the evolutions and characteristics of the archaeological cultures in the Liaohe River Plain from the late Shang to the Han Dynasties.

The Excavation of the Tombs of the Jin Dynasty at Dong Wutong Village in Longkou City, Shandong

KEYWORDS: Shandong    Dong Wutong Cemetery    Brick-chamber Tombs    Burials of the Western Jin Dynasty    Burials of the Eastern Jin Dynasty

ABSTRACT: In October and November 2007, Yantai Museum conducted rescue excavation to the cemetery of the Western and Eastern Jin Dynasty at Dong Wutong Village in Lutou Town, Longkou City. All of the recovered tombs were brick single- and double-chamber tombs; most of the unearthed grave goods were white pottery wares, which were eared-cups, palm bowls, jars, ladles, boxes and trays. On the sides of some tomb bricks, the impressed date inscription of “the seventh year of Taikang Era (286 AD)”, “the twentieth year of Taiyuan Era (395 AD)” were seen; some grave goods also bore date of “the eleventh year of Taiyuan Era (386 AD)”, all of which provided strong evidences for the dating of this cemetery. This is the first cemetery of the Western and Eastern Jin Dynasties found in Shandong Peninsula; it was a family cemetery lasting for a rather long time, therefore it is very valuable for the researches on the burial structure and characteristics of grave goods of the Western and Eastern Jin Dynasties in this area.

The Tombs of the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties at Xishanqiao in Yuhuatai District, Nanjing City

KEYWORDS: Nanjing    Xishanqiao    Liu Song Dynasty (of the Southern Dynasties)    Burials    Brick Epitaphs

ABSTRACT: The tomb with the date of the third year of Yuanjia Era (426 AD) of the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties was found at Sections 1 and 2 of Jiadong Village in Yuhuatai District, Naning City. In March through August 2010, Nanjing Municipal Museum conducted comprehensive coring test and excavation to the area where this tomb was found. The tomb with the date “the third year of Yuanjia Era” was a brick-chamber tomb with vaulted roof and 凸-shaped plan consisting of the grave, ramp, brick chamber and drainage ditches. This tomb had been looted before excavation, but its structure was well preserved, and dated artifacts were found in it, which provided new data for the periodization and structural researches on the tombs of the Six Dynasties Period in Nanjing area; especially, the six brick epitaphs are greatly significant for the researches on the burial customs and calligraphic art in the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties.

The Tombs of the Five-Dynasties Period and the Song and Jin Dynasties at Miaobei Village in Luoyang City, Henan

KEYWORDS: Luoyang    Miaobei Village    Burials of the Five-Dynasties Period and the Song and Jin Dynasties    Epitaphs    Sutra Pillars

ABSTRACT: In 2011, Luoyang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated some tombs of the Five-Dynasties Period and the Song and Jin Dynasties located to the southeast of the intersection of the Airport Road and the National Highway 310. All of the tombs were boot-shaped earthen cave tombs, the passageways of which had three types: vertical shaft, ramp and stepped ramp, and most of them were vertical shaft passageways. The grave goods unearthed from the tombs of the Five-Dynasties Period were potteries, porcelains, bronzes, epitaphs, etc. Some of the tombs of the Song Dynasty had the entrances sealed by rectangular bricks and floors paved with square bricks, the grave goods unearthed from which were porcelains, potteries, bronze coins, epitaphs, etc. From the tombs of the Jin Dynasty, a pottery land contract was unearthed; when it was found, it was surrounded by five pebbles in green, blue, yellow, white and purple colors respectively. The epitaphs, sutra pillars, land contract, porcelains and other artifacts unearthed from these tombs not only enriched our knowledge on the burial custom of Luoyang area during this period but also provided important data for the researches on the historic geography and administrative evolutions in Luoyang area.

The Archaeological Exploration on the Early Settlements of Nomadic Cultures in Tibet

KEYWORDS: Early Nomadic Culture    Settlement Archaeology    Tibetan Archaeology

ABSTRACT: Along with the archaeological investigations and discoveries of the early nomadic cultures in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Tibet, new tendencies are emerging in the theories and methods of the researches on the early settlements of nomadic cultures in China, and new enlightenments for the practices of settlement archaeology. This paper tries to analyze the basic features, cultural natures, external characteristics and other factors of the settlement remains of the early nomadic cultures in Tibet with the new theories and observation methods, and examine them in the macroscopic interregional perspective, in order to induce the approaches and paradigms for the systematic researches on the ancient nomadic cultures in Tibet.

On the Narration of “Your Fathers of the Yin Dynasty Had Their Archives and Statutes” and Relevant Issues -- And the Interpretation of the Special Character “Dian (Archive)” in No. 1616 of the Oracle Bone Collections in Great Britain

KEYWORDS: Archives of the Yin (Shang) Dynasty    Oracle Bones of Yinxu Site    The Memorial Tablets of the Yin Dynasty

ABSTRACT: It is narrated in the Duoshi (the Numerous Officials) Chapter of Shujing (Book of Documents) that “your fathers of the Yin Dynasty had their archives and statutes (惟殷先人有册有典)” which hinted that in the Yin (Shang) Dynasty, the written archives and statutes have emerged. Now we have known that in the oracle bone inscriptions, the ce册 and dian典 are seen, which are written as   and  . These ce and dian were bones and turtle shells rather than bamboo and wooden slips, which coincided with the fact of the discoveries of the oracle bones in Yinxu Site. The dian ( ) in the oracle bone inscriptions had two meanings: one was “da ce大册 (big ce)” and the other was “guizhong zhi ce贵重之册 (valuable ce)”. However, another form of dian, which is written as “ ”, also appears in the oracle bone inscriptions (see No. 1616 of the Oracle Bone Collections in Great Britain): it is just the “dian ” in Shuowen Jiezi说文解字 (Commentary of the Explanation and Study of Principles of Composition of Characters), which meant the memorial tablets (symbols of the souls) of the ancestors. The so-called “handle-shaped objects” unearthed from Yinxu Site were these memorial tablets. In the later times, the “ ” merged into the character “典”, but they have different origins. The “典” in the idiom “shu dian wang zu数典忘祖 (count the memorial tablets but forget the ancestors)” is originally the “ ” rather than the “典”.

The Archaeological Cultures of the Zhou Dynasty in Xiling Gorge Area and the Early Chu Culture

KEYWORDS: Xiling Gorge    Zhou Dynasty    Archaeological Cultures    Early Chu Culture    Kui夔 State

ABSTRACT: In the Xia and Shang Dynasties, the areas nearby Xiling Gorge were the distribution areas of Chaotianzui-Lujiahe Culture. Down to the late Western Zhou Dynasty, an archaeological culture represented by li-cauldron began to influence the Xiling Gorge area, the date of the appearance of which coincided with the historic event of Xiong Zhi escaping to Kui. However, from the late Western Zhou Dynasty to the transitional period of the Western Zhou to the Eastern Zhou Period, the elements of the early Chu Culture in Xiling Gorge area was very weak and the mainstream of the pottery assemblage was still keeping the local tradition since the Xia and Shang Dynasties. In the early Spring-and-Autumn Period, the elements of the Chu Culture was largely strengthened, but large amounts of local-styled potteries were still existing in the pottery assemblage. Beginning in the mid Spring-and-Autumn Period, the elements of the Chu Culture took the absolute supremacy in this area, the local-styled potteries almost disappeared and some of the local pottery types were modified into that with Chu styles.

The Evolution of the Mural Tombs of the Mid Koguryo Period in Pyongyang and Nearby Areas

KEYWORDS: Pyongyang    Mural Tombs   Portraits of Tomb Occupants    Images of the Four Supernatural Beings    Koguryo

ABSTRACT: Based on the evolutions of the images of yaoche (chariot-styled carriage) in the murals of the Koguryo tombs, and the similar motifs in the murals as well as the grave goods from the dated Koguryo tombs, this paper studied the Yaksoori Mural Tomb and suggested its date. Referring to this research result, this paper analyzed the evolution sequence of the Koguryo mural tombs in Pyongyang and adjacent regions with the coexistence of the portraits of tomb occupants and the images of the Four Supernatural Beings and defined their dates as between the fourth quarter of the 5th century to the first quarter of the 6th century. During this period, the Koguryo burial system had significant changes, which was indeed caused by the constant stabilization and strengthening of the ruling of Koguryo in this area, but the influences of the religious architecture, art and thought coming from the Central Plains were the more essential causes.

The Chaine Opératoire Theory and the Studies on the Pottery Manufacturing Technology

KEYWORDS: Chaine Opératoire    Pottery Manufacturing Technology    Technological Choices

ABSTRACT: The concept of cha?ne opératoire is critical to the study of technology. It has been applied in archaeology for almost fifty years. The concept emphasizes the sequence and interaction among different technical sections, and the social factors affecting technological choices. Under such theoretical frame, researchers are forced to consider technology and factors for technological choices in a multiple perspective. Although cha?ne opératoire is not able to give us the specific study method, scientific methods, experimental archaeology, pottery ethnoarchaeology and pottery ecology could produce invaluable information under its instruction. It also enlightens archaeologists on the study of technology.

 


 

 
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