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HomePublicationJournalsKaogu (Archaeology)
Kaogu 2011-8
From:Chinese Archaeology  Writer:  Date:2011-08-31
Second Inner Mongolian Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and Inner Mongolian Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, The Architectural Foundation on the Guifu Hill in the Zuling Mausoleum Precinct of the Liao Dynasty in Bairin Left Banner, Inner   Mongolia…………………………………………………………………………………(3)
Inner Mongolian Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, The Liao Tombs in Shuiquan Township, Liangcheng County, Inner Mongolia ………………………(13)
Chaoyang Museum and Longcheng District Museum, Chaoyang City, The Excavation of the Tombs Nos. 3 and 4 of the Geng Family Cemetery at Guyingzi Village, Chao yang City, Liaoning……………………………………………………………………(31)
Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Fuxin Municipal Archaeological Team, The Tomb of Princess Pingyuan and the Tomb No. 4 of the Liao   Dynasty at Tizimiao in Fuxin County, Liaoning……………………………………(46)
Lu Guoquan, The Re-understanding to the Dates of the Pottery Molds Unearthed in Xiaomintun Locus Southeast of Yinxu Site and Relevant Issues……………………(66)
Teng Mingyu, Also on the Typology of the Bow-shaped Objects and Relevant Issues
  ……………………………………………………………………………………………(73)
Li Longbin et al., The Criticism and Interpretation of the Epitaph of Princess Pingyuan of the Liao Dynasty…………………………………………………………………… (81)
Yan Zhibin, The Exploration of the King Named Qian of the Chu State …………… (87)
 
 
The Architectural Foundation on the Guifu Hill in the Zuling Mausoleum Precinct of the Liao Dynasty in Bairin Left Banner, Inner Mongolia
KEYWORDS: Inner Mongolia Zuling Mausoleum Precinct of the Liao Dynasty Architectural Foundation on the Guifu Hill   Monument Tower of Emperor Taizu (of the Liao Dynasty)
ABSTRACT: In the summer 2007, Second Inner Mongolian Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and other institutions excavated the architectural foundation on the Guifu Hill in the Zuling Mausoleum of the Liao Dynasty. Facing the south, this architecture was an earth-and-timber structure. The whole architecture consisted of the foundation, the main body and the mounting paths on the two sides. The main body had three bays in both longitudinal and transverse directions. In the center of the main body was a tortoise-shaped stele pedestal, on the back of which was a socket for erecting the stele. The stele was a bilingual one bearing Khitan large script characters and Chinese characters recording the historic merits of Yelü Abaoji, the Emperor Taizu of the Liao Dynasty. Referred to the historic literature, this architectural foundation is defined as the monument tower of Emperor Taizu noted in Liao Shi (the History of the Liao Dynasty).
 
 
The Liao Tombs in Shuiquan Township, Liangcheng County, Inner Mongolia
KEYWORDS: Inner Mongolia Shuiquan Cemetery Early Liao Dynasty Turkic Adherents
ABSTRACT: In 2008, Inner Mongolian Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated two tombs of the early Liao Dynasty to the north of the cemetery of the Warring-States Period at Shuiquan Township, Liangcheng County. Both of the tombs are trapezoid earthen shaft pit tombs with curved corners accompanied with animal victims; the grave goods are mainly the ones related to nomadic life, such as gold and silver ornaments, gilt bronze horse fittings, iron implements and large amount of belt plaques, among which the complete set of horse fittings unearthed from M27 reflected the styles of Turkic Culture. The discovery of these two Turkic tombs of the Liao Dynasty provided important archaeological data for understanding the fusion of the cultures of the ethnic groups in this area and the history of these ethnic groups competing on the steppes.
 
 
The Excavation of the Tombs Nos. 3 and 4 of the Geng Family Cemetery at Guyingzi Village, Chaoyang City, Liaoning
KEYWORDS: Liaoning Guyingzi Tomb No. 3 Tomb No. 4 Geng Family Cemetery
ABSTRACT: In 1997 and 2002, Chaoyang Museum and other institutions recovered the Tombs Nos.3 and 4 of the Geng Family Cemetery at Guyingzi Village in Chaoyang City. Tomb No. 3 was a brick single-chamber tomb consisting of the passageway, the ventilating shaft, the entrance, the corridor and the tomb chamber. The grave goods unearthed from this tomb are potteries, iron implements, bronzes and agate ornaments, and so on. Tomb No. 4, a brick double-chamber imitating wooden structure, had been looted much earlier before the excavation, and only a set of epitaph and very few grave goods were yielded. According to the epitaph, the occupants of this tomb were Geng Chongmei, who had been a translator in the early Liao Dynasty and was ever assigned as Jiedushi (military commissioner) and his wife (nee Yelü). Geng Chongmei was an aristocrat of the Han ethnic group with preeminent status in the early Liao Dynasty, and his epitaph is significantly meaningful for the researches on the histories of the elite clans of the Han people in the Xingzhong Prefecture of the Liao Dynasty and their marriage relations.
 
 
The Tomb of Princess Pingyuan and the Tomb No. 4 of the Liao Dynasty at Tizimiao in Fuxin County, Liaoning
KEYWORDS: Liaoning Tombs on Ulan Mutu Mountain Tomb of Princess Pingyuan (of the Liao Dynasty) Tomb No. 4 at Tizimiao Liao Dynasty
ABSTRACT: In October through December 2010, Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and other institutions excavated the tomb of Princess Pingyuan and the Tomb No. 4 at Tizimiao, both of which belonged to the Ulan Mutu Mountain Tomb Group and had been looted before excavation. The tomb of Princess Pingyuan was a brick double-chamber tomb consisting of the passageway, the entrance, the antechamber, the left and right side chambers and the main chamber; on the retaining wall above the tomb entrance and on the walls of the passageway, murals were found. The grave goods unearthed from this tomb were mainly iron wares followed by porcelain and glass wares, as well as gold and silver wares, bronzes, jades and an epitaph, the terminus antequem of which was the end of Emperor Xingzong's reign (around 1054 CE). Tomb No. 4 at Tizimiao was a brick single-chamber tomb consisting of the passageway, the entrance and the tomb chamber, the grave goods unearthed from which were potteries, bronzes, iron implements and amber and crystal objects, and it was dated in the mid Liao Dynasty.
 
 
The Re-understanding to the Dates of the Pottery Molds Unearthed in Xiaomintun Locus Southeast of Yinxu Site and Relevant Issues
KEYWORDS: Xiaomintun Locus Southeast Bronze Foundry Sites Pottery Molds Dating of
Bronzes
ABSTRACT: The pottery molds unearthed from the bronze foundry site at Xiaomintun Locus Southeast are of great significance to the periodization of the bronzes of Yinxu Site and the dating of the bronzes between the late Shang and early Western Zhou Dynasties. Based on a close estimation to the date of 2000AGH31, we can solve the dating issues of the related bronzes, and can also infer that the bronze workshop was still in action in the early Western Zhou Dynasty. The fact that the products of those pottery molds have not been found so far in Yinxu Site could be related to “Dividing up the gains from Yin” by the Zhou people who just conquered the Shang.
 
 
Also on the Typology of the Bow-shaped Objects and Relevant Issues
KEYWORDS: Shang and Zhou Dynasties “Bow-shaped Objects” Rein Holders
ABSTRACT: The “bow-shaped objects” emerged in the Shang and Zhou Dynasties of China, which were used as “rein holders” for the charioteers or riders to free their hands, could be classified into two types: the narrow-backed ones and the wide-backed ones. Observed from the situations that some of the narrow-backed ones were found at the waists of the human skeletons, the similar objects in the images of the deer stones in Mongolia are all on the waists of human figures and they were coexisting with bows and bow cases, they are suggested to be tied to or hung on the waist belts. On the other hand, seen from the facts that most of the wide-backed bow-shaped objects were found in the chariot boxes and horse pits, and that on the deer stones found in Mongolia and the Central Asia, chariot images have been seen with reins tied to the chariot boxes, at least a part of the wide-backed bow-shaped objects were tied to the front edge of the chariot boxes for holding reins.
 
 
The Criticism and Interpretation of the Epitaph of Princess Pingyuan of the Liao Dynasty
KEYWORDS: Liao Dynasty Tomb of Princess Pingyuan Epitaphs Xiao Zhong, the Consort of Imperial Princess
ABSTRACT: The three epitaphs of Xiao Jin萧仅, Xiao Min萧旻nd Princess Pingyuan of the Liao Dynasty unearthed in recent years from the tombs on Ulan Mutu Mountain in Bajiazi Township, Fuxin County, Liaoning showed that these tombs belonged to the cemetery of Xiao Family, the imperial consort clan of the Liao Dynasty. Based on the epitaph of Princess Pingyuan and referring to the epitaphs of Xiao Jin and Xiao Min as well as other inscription materials and historic literature, this paper studied and discussed the life of Princess Pingyuan, the outlined biographies of the ancestors of Xiao Zhong, the husband of Princess Pingyuan and the children of Xiaozhong and Princess Pingyuan, and confirmed the relations among Xiao Jin, Xiao Zhong, Xiao Min and Princess Pingyuan. These studies provided valuable and reliable materials for the research on the history of the imperial in-laws of the Liao Dynasty.
 
 
The Exploration of the King Named Qian of the Chu State
KEYWORDS: Bronze Inscriptions the Yan-steamer of Qian, the King of the Chu State the Bell of Qian, the King of the Chu State Xiong Qian, King Ling of the Chu State Late Phase of Mid Spring-and-Autumn Period
ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the style, decorative pattern and the text, character style, phraseology and sound shift relations of the inscription of the bronze Yan-steamer of Qian, the King of the Chu State discovered recently, and pointed out that the dates of these features are contradicting while overlapping each other; meanwhile, the typological features of this yansteamer showed the styles of the late phase of mid Spring-and-Autumn Period, so the hypothesis that this king of the Chu State whose name was Qian was the most probably Xiong Qian熊虔, the King Ling of the Chu State was agreed with.
 
 
 
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