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HomePublicationJournalsKaogu (Archaeology)
Kaogu 2011-2
From:Chinese Archaeology  Writer:  Date:2011-03-09

Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, The Excavation of
  the Western Zhou Remains at Chenzhuang Village,Gaoqing County,Shandong … (3)
Li Xueqin et al., Experts' Comments on the Chenzhuang Site in Gaoqing County,
  Shandong………………………………………………………………………………… (22)
Pingxiang Municipal Museum, The Preliminary Report on the Survey of the Tianzhong
  Ancient City Site in Pingxiang City, Jiangxi ……………………………………… (33)
SouthNorth Water Transfer (SNWT) Office, Henan Provincial Cultural Heritage Ad
ministration et al., The Eastern Zhou Tomb No. 118 of Machuan Cemetery in Xichuan
  County, Henan ………………………………………………………………………… (39)
Second Luoyang Municipal Archaeological Team et al., The Mounded Tomb of the Ea
  stern Han to ThreeKingdoms Period at Yanlou Village, Yanshi City, Henan… (45)
Lian Shaoming, The Birds in the Yinxu Oracle Bone Inscriptions …………………… (50)
Tang Jigen and Peng Anbao, The Chu State and the “Yue People” behind the Tianzhong
  Ancient City Site ……………………………………………………………………… (53)
Feng Enxue, Chin Rest-An Ignored Relic of Zoroastrian Culture ……………………(62)
Luo Shuai, The Date and Nature of the Begram Treasure in Afghanistan…………… (68)
He Kunyu, On the Subsistence Types of Shi'erqiao Culture-Focused on Zooarchaeology
  …………………………………………………………………………………………… (81)
Wu Guibing,The Review of Echeng Liuchao Mu (Tombs of the Six Dynasties at Echeng)
  ……………………………………………………………………………………………(90)

  
KEYWORDS: Shandong Chenzhuang Site City Sites Aristocrat Tombs Early Qi Culture
ABSTRACT:The excavations to Chenzhuang Site confirmed that it is a city site of the Western Zhou Dynasty. Within the city site, house foundations, ash pits, cellars, paths, wells and other living remains are recovered, more important than which were the remains of a sacrificial altar, aristocrat tombs, horse pits and chariot-and-horse pits. Many inscribed bronzes were unearthed, two of which bore long inscriptions of more than 70 characters each, and the title “Qi Gong (the Duke of Qi)” was also seen in the inscriptions for the first time. In addition, elaborate and exquisite jades were also found in this site. This city site was first built in the early Western Zhou and abandoned in the mid Western Zhou Dynasty; most of the tombs belonged to the mid Western Zhou Dynasty. The excavation of Chenzhuang Site filled the blank of early Qi Culture and is a great breakthrough of the archaeology of Qi Culture in the recent half century.


KEYWORDS: Chenzhuang City Sites Western Zhou Dynasty Qi State
ABSTRACT:The results of the excavation to the Western Zhou city site at Chenzhuang Village, Gaoqing County, Shandong widely draw the attention of the academic circle. For this reason, we invited some experts to present comments on the date and nature of the city site, the contents of the bronze inscriptions and the nature of the altar, and so on. The experts presented their opinions from different aspects and agreed that the discoveries of the excavation to this site are greatly meaningful for the Western Zhou Archaeology, especially the early history of the Qi State. The experts generally made agreements on the date of the city site and the interpretation of the bronze inscriptions, but still have different ideas on the natures of the city site and the altar: some scholars thought that the city site was Bogu or Yingqiu, both of which were the early capitals of the Qi State; some scholars believed that it was a fief or a military fortress. As for the altar, some scholars thought that it was an altar of heaven,or an altar of the soil, or related to grave-site sacrificial ceremonies. Along with the progresses of the trimming and researching of the materials, the understanding to the excavation results will be much deepened.


KEYWORDS: Jiangxi Tianzhong Ancient City Western Zhou Dynasty Spring-and-Autumn  Period
ABSTRACT: Located in the northern suburb of Pingxiang City, Jiangxi, the Tianzhong Ancient City Site is roughly in a trapezoid plan covering an area of about 4 ha. Some portions of the city walls are still remaining on the ground. Some potteries and bronze weapons were unearthed in the city site; the remains of the same period, including bronze chime bells of the Western Zhou Dynasty, were also found in the periphery of the city site. Since 1977, archaeologists have conducted several times of surveys to this city site. The surveys have not made clear the time when this city began to be built, but confirmed that the usage of this city site went through the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring-and-Autumn Period. The abandoning of this city might be related to the southward expansion of the Chu State.


KEYWORDS: Henan Machuan Cemetery M118 Earthen Shaft Pit Tombs with Wooden Coffin Chamber Early Warring-States Period
ABSTRACT: In the years 2007 to 2008, Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and other institutions conducted excavation to Machuan Cemetery in Xichuan County. The almost 100 Eastern Zhou tombs recovered in these excavations were preserved rather well, the M118 of which had large size and plentiful grave goods, which are important materials for the in-depth researches on the Chu Culture. It was a rectangular earthen shaft tomb consisting of the ramp passageway and the tomb chamber. with multi-tier walls and wooden coffin chamber. Three coffins were set side by side in the coffin chamber, the grave goods unearthed from which were mainly potteries, as well as bronze weapons, bells and beads made of glass and agate. The date of this tomb would be the early Warring-States Period and its occupants would be aristocrats with Qing (minister) or Dafu (grand master) ranks.


KEYWORDS: Henan Yanlou Village Single-chamber Earthen Cave Tombs Mausoleum Precinct to the South of Luo River Han Dynasty to the Three-Kingdoms Period
ABSTRACT: In August through September 2006, the Second Luoyang Municipal Archaeological Team recovered a mounded tomb in Yanlou Village, Yanshi City. The mound over the tomb had been in a circular plan 28 m in diameter, but it was flattened before the excavation. The tomb was a single-chamber earthen cave tomb consisting of the long ramp passageway, the tunnel corridor and the rectangular cave chamber. The remaining 28 pieces of grave goods included potteries, porcelains, bronzes and stone implements, plus 27 bronze coins. The burial type and the unearthed grave goods showed that the date of this tomb was around the late Eastern Han Dynasty to the Wei Kingdom of the Three-Kingdoms Period.


KEYWORDS: Oracle Bone Inscriptions Cultures Religions Birds
ABSTRACT: In the oracle bone inscriptions found in Yinxu, some records about “birds” are seen, and they are important materials for the researches on the ideology and culture of the Shang Dynasty. The term Shengchu Niao生刍鸟 seen in the inscriptions would be the “Xuan Niao玄鸟 (Black Bird, or Swallow)” worshipped by the Shang people. The “Shengchu (a bundle of fresh hay)” is an ancient term seen in Shi Jing (the Book of Poetry). The Dingyang Niao丁羊鸟 in the oracle bone inscriptions would refer to the Scarlet Bird in the south sky. The south was called Wei微, and Wei and Mei美 were homophones and could replace with each other; therefore the record about Qumei取美 in the oracle bone inscriptions would refer to the sacrifice to the south direction. In the oracle bone inscriptions, the character Sun隼 (falcon) is seen; the Ming Sun鸣隼 (Lit. Singing Falcon) in the divination contents might refer to Chixiao鸱 (owl).


KEYWORDS: Tianzhong Ancient City Stamped Pottery Culture Chu State Yue Peoples
ABSTRACT: The Tianzhong Ancient City at least witnessed the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring-and-Autumn Period, and its archaeological background is the Stamped Pottery Culture in Jiangxi Province. It is hard to confirm its state attribution but its ethnic attribution would be the “Bai Yue (the ancient Yue People in South China)”. The decline of this city might be caused by the southward invasion of the Chu State. Its abandonment might define the date of the southward expansion of the Chu State across Changsha and reaching the line from Zhuzhou to Liling around 550 BC. It is the evidence of the contact and fusion of the Chu Culture and the Bai Yue Culture in the Spring-and-Autumn Period.


KEYWORDS: Zoroastrianism Chin Rest Tombs of the Tang Dynasty
ABSTRACT: The chin rests found in the tombs of the Tang Dynasty are all made of metal and in two types, namely the U-shaped and ring-shaped ones. The chin rest is a kind of religious implement created under the influence of the artistic figure of Zoroastrian priests wearing mask and with meaning of being blessed by the deities. The fact that the chin rests are found in the tombs of Han people of the Tang Dynasty proved from one aspect that in the Tang Dynasty, the Zoroastrianism had Chinese followers, which brought about the emergence of its special burial customs among the Han people.


KEYWORDS: Begram Treasure 55 AD Trading Stations Cultural Communications
ABSTRACT: In the late 1930s, the French Archaeological Delegation in Afghanistan excavated two sealed rooms at Begram Site, in which lots of exotic objects from Rome, India and China were found. Most of the scholars regarded them as a royal treasure of Kushan Empire in the 1st to mid 3rd century AD. However, the view was challenged by the evidences from typology, stratigraphy, numismatics and literature. According to them, a conclusion could be drawn that the Begram finds were the last goods of a Roman trading station, which was destroyed by the invasion of the Kushan King Kujula Kadphises around 55 AD. The very trading station, which situated at a significant location on the Silk Road, should throw much light on the related issues about the 1st century occidental wares uncovered in China.


KEYWORDS: Shi'erqiao Culture Chengdu Plain Type Eastern Chongqing Type Xianglushi Culture Subsistence Strategies
ABSTRACT:Through the statistical analyses to the number of identified specimens (NISP), minimum number of individuals (MNI) and estimation of meat consumption of the animal remains unearthed from the representative sites of Chengdu Plain Type and Eastern Chongqing Type of Shi'erqiao Culture, this paper observed the subsistence strategy of this culture, the results of which showed that the meat resource of Chengdu Plain Type was mainly from domesticated animals and that of Eastern Chongqing Type was mainly from hunted animals. At last, through the comparison to the subsistence strategy of Xianglushi Culture, this paper draws a conclusion that in the early stage of human civilization, the subsistence strategies of different types of the same archaeological culture might be different, while that of different archaeological cultures might tend to the same; the factors influencing the subsistence strategies are mainly the natural geographical environments, regional economic traditions and population pressures, etc.

KEYWORDS: Archaeology of the Three-Kingdoms to the Southern and Northern Dynasties Periods  Tombs of the Six Dynasties at Echeng (Book Title) Time and Space Archaeological Methods in Historic Times
ABSTRACT: The Tombs of Six Dynasties at Echeng includes data of tombs, total 394, which can form new knowledge on time and space about the archaeology of the Three-Kingdoms Period to the Southern and Northern Dynasties. Compared with other published excavation reports, the data on Tombs of Six Dynasties at Echeng originated from only one place, the duration of which is persisted in the whole Six Dynasties, and changed the distribution of the archaeological materials of this period in terms of time and space. On the temporal aspect, the report emphasizes the importance of relative dates, and provides reasoning procedures and examples of analyzing the dates of the tombs in this area. On the spatial aspect, the report pays attention to the spaces in the tombs, the geographical environment of Echeng area, and the relationship between the regional development in history and the evolution of the tombs, and so on. What more mentionable is that this report puts forward new understandings for us on the influences of the changes of ritual affairs and the boundaries of administrative regions to the spatial distribution of the remains.

 
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