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HomePublicationJournalsKaogu (Archaeology)
Kaogu 2010-11
From:Chinese Archaeology  Writer:Xinhua  Date:2011-01-28

 

Main Contents


Cultural Relics Bureau of Linzi District, Zibo City, Shandong Province, The Burials of the Warring-States Period and Han Dynasty in Guojia Village, Linzi District, Zibo City, Shandong ………………………………………………………………( 3 )
Xuzhou Museum, The Excavation of the Quarry Site of the Han Dynasty in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province ……………………………………………………………………( 28)
Shanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology and CPAM of Jixian County, The Preliminary Report of the Survey to the Cliffside Carvings at Guajiashan Hill in Jixian County, Shanxi Province ………………………………………………………… ( 40 )
SNWT Office, Henan Provincial Cultural Heritage Administration et al., The Dated Tomb of the Tang Dynasty at Xuecun Site in Xingyang City, Henan Province ………………………………………………………………………… (52  )
Cao Jun, A Re-exploration to Maqiao Culture ………………………………………… ( 58 )
Han Jianye, Liangzhu, Taosi and Erlitou -- the Evolution Route of the Early Chinese Civilization …………………………………………………………………………… ( 71 )
Chen Xiaolu, On the Origins and Developments of the Buddhist Temples with 回-shaped Plan in the Western Regions …………………………………………………… (79  )
Niu Tianwei, The Examination to the Images of the Qigedong (Seven-cave) Cliff Tombs in Changning County, Sichuan ………………………………………………………… (91  )

 

Abstracts:


The Burials of the Warring-States Period and Han Dynasty in Guojia Village, Linzi District, Zibo City, Shandong
KEYWORDS: Shandong; Cemetery at Guojia Village; Warring-States Period to the Han Dynasty
ABSTRACT: In 2007, Cultural Relics Bureau of Linzi District, Zibo City conducted a rescue excavation to the ancient tombs in Guojia Village. The features of the unearthed potteries and construction materials as well as the types of the tombs reflected that 49 tombs might belong to the Warring-States to the Han Dynasty, of which 22 are confirmed to be that of the Warring-States Period and eight are that of the Han Dynasty. The tombs of the Warring-States are T-shaped earthen pit tombs with stone fills and wooden coffin chambers and rectangular earthen pit tombs yielding potteries, bronzes, jades, crystal and agate ornaments and stone and bone implements. The tombs of the Han Dynasty are rectangular brick-chamber tombs and rectangular earthen pit tombs yielding bronzes, stone and bone implements and iron objects. The Guojia Cemetery lasted for a rather long time and yielded rich and diversified grave goods, which are significantly meaningful for the researches on the tomb types and their evolution sequences and the burial systems of the Qi area from the Warring-States Period to the Han Dynasty.

 

The Excavation of the Quarry Site of the Han Dynasty in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province
KEYWORDS: Jiangsu; Xuzhou City; Han Dynasty; Quarry Sites
ABSTRACT: The Quarry Site of the Han Dynasty located in the south of Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province was excavated in May through August 2004. The stratigraphical relations of the site are simple but the quarrying remains are rich. Large amounts of quarrying pits are found, reflecting various techniques of quarrying; in addition, the half-done product pits, refuse pits, incomplete pits, steps and wedge holes (for splitting rocks) are also found. Plenty of artifacts are unearthed from the site, most of which are iron quarrying tools and pottery utensils for daily use. This site was used in the Western Han Dynasty and abandoned at latest in the early Eastern Han Dynasty. It would be the official quarry and stone workshop of the Chu Marquisate of the Western Han Dynasty, the products of which might be the construction materials of the tombs of the Chu Marquises. The excavation to this quarry site provided rich physical materials for the researches on the development of the stone handicraft in the Han Dynasty.

 

The Preliminary Report of the Survey to the Cliffside Carvings at Guajiashan Hill in Jixian County, Shanxi Province
KEYWORDS: Shanxi; Jixian County; Cliffside Carvings at Guajiashan Hill; Northern Qi to Song-Jin Period
ABSTRACT: In 2007, Shanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology conducted a survey to the Cliffside Carvings at Guajiashan Hill in Jixian County. The survey found that the carvings are densely distributed in a relatively small area and rather well preserved. The images are carved in high relief, bas-relief and linear carving methods and could be divided into five groups: Group I has three niches and one inscription, Group II, three niches and four inscriptions, Group III, one niche and two inscriptions, Group IV, two niches and two inscriptions and Group V, two niches and two inscriptions. Inferred from the features of the extant images, the date of the Cliffside Carvings at Guajiashan Hill in Jixian County are from the Northern Qi to the Song and Jin Dynasties.

 

The Dated Tomb of the Tang Dynasty at Xuecun Site in Xingyang City, Henan Province
KEYWORDS: Henan; Xingyang City; Joint Burial Tombs of the Couple; Deputy Commander of Heyang Army; Song Hua (Human Name); A. D. 820
ABSTRACT: In 2005 to 2006, Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology excavated a group of tombs of the Tang Dynasty at Xuecun Site in Xingyang City. The M2 in Excavation Zone IV is a well-preserved joint tomb of a couple buried in late Tang Dynasty yielding a set of epitaph and a set of grave goods including porcelains and potteries and so on. From the text of the epitaph, we know that the occupants were Song Hua, who was the Bingma Fushi (deputy commander) of Heyang Army and acting Taichang Qing (chief minister of the Court of Imperial Sacrifices), and his wife (nee Yan) interred in 820 A. D. The epitaph reflected that the Song Hua was a member of the Wei-Bo (present-day southern Hebei and northern Henan) Factor, which provided new material for the researches on the situation of the military regional usurpation and the hierarchy of the middle and lower-ranked military officials in the middle and late Tang Dynasty. Meanwhile, the unearthed ceramics are also the references for the chronological and typological researches on the ceramics of the Tang Dynasty.

 

A Re-exploration to Maqiao Culture
KEYWORDS: Maqiao Culture; Property; Re-exploration
ABSTRACT: Maqiao Culture, which was distributed in Lake Tai area during the Xia and Shang Period, has been recognized for a long time as a new archaeological culture mainly containing immigrated culture characterized by a kind of fine red pottery group. However, the analyses both in quality and quantity on the stone implements and the nature, decorative patterns and the shapes of the potteries show that Maqiao Culture is still an aboriginal culture.

 

Liangzhu, Taosi and Erlitou -- the Evolution Route of the Early Chinese Civilization
KEYWORDS: Liangzhu Ancient City; Taosi Ancient City; Ancient Capital City at Erlitou; Early China
ABSTRACT: The sizes of the Liangzhu Ancient City, Taosi Ancient City and Ancient Capital City at Erlitou are all around 300 ha or so, all of which are listed as the largest settlement remains before the Shang Dynasty. The evolutions of these three central settlements roughly outlined the route of the evolution of the early Chinese Civilization: the regional state civilizations represented by Liangzhu Archaic State, which emerged around 5000 BP, were flourishing indeed but independent from each other. The Taosi Culture, which was the Taotang Archaic State emerging in 4500 BP and nearby the Central Plains and had overall control rather than regional one, was still had very limited sphere of influence, and the hereditary monarchy was not formed yet, so it could only be an embryonic state or kingdom. The Erlitou Bronze Civilization appeared in the Central Plains since 3800 BP, however, could absorb the essences of all of the peripheral regions and radiate its own culture to them, and had unprecedented wide and deep influence to these regions; moreover, the stable hereditary royal power formed and the real kingdom was founded. This development from a regional state to a kingdom met the evolution route of “Regional state - kingdom - empire” and was tightly related to the evolution of the natural environment.

 

On the Origins and Developments of the Buddhist Temples with 回-shaped Plan in the Western Regions
KEYWORDS: Cultural Exchanges between China and the West; Buddhist Temples in the Western Regions, Archaeology of Xinjiang
ABSTRACT: The “Buddhist temples with 回-shaped Plan” here means the ancient square temple surrounded by corridors. As is known so far, first appearing in Central Asia, this kind of temple became one of the most important architectural types in the Western Regions, and influenced the architectural design of Buddhist temples in Central China during the Han-Jin Period significantly. In this article, the origin and the specific spreading route into the Western Regions and Central China of this kind of temple are studied with archaeological references.

 

The Examination to the Images of the Qigedong (Seven-cave) Cliff Tombs in Changning County, Sichuan
KEYWORDS: the Seven-cave Cliff Tombs; “Jiagua嘉瓜 (the Auspicious Melon)”; “the Bird Picking Fish in the Beak”; “Mating Dragons”; Interlocking Coin (Bi-disc) Pattern
ABSTRACT: The Qigedong (Seven-cave) Cliff Tombs in Changning County, Sichuan Province had images with rich motifs and contents, to which Professor Luo Erhu has comprehensive and systematic researches in his paper titled Changning Qigedong Yamu Qun Han Huaxiang Yanjiu (A Study of the Han period Relieves in the Cliff Tombs at Qigedong, Changning). However, by the concrete examinations to the connotations of the motifs such as “Jiagua (the Auspicious Melon)”, “the Bird Picking Fish in the Beak”, “Mating Dragons”, the interlocking coin (Bi-disc) pattern and so on, this paper gives some different suggestions: the images on the gates of Tombs No. 1, 6 and 7 are not showing the subject of the ascending into the Paradise of the souls of the tomb occupants, but showing the hope of the prosperity and gloriousness of the descendants of the tomb occupants.

 

 
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