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HomePublicationJournalsKaogu (Archaeology)
Kaogu 2010-3
From:Chinese Archaeology  Writer:  Date:2010-04-30
Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology et al., Excavation to
  the Remains of the Shang Dynasty of Liwu Site at Yangxin County, Shandong…
  …………………………………………………………………………………………… (3)
Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology et al., Excavation
  to the Salt Industry Remains at Shuangwangcheng, Shouguang City, Shandong
  in 2008…………………………………………………………………………………… (18)
Department of Archaeology, Shandong University et al., The Salt Industry Remains
  of the Western Zhou Dynasty of Nanheya Site at Dongying City, Shandong……(37)
Cui, Jianfeng et al., On Some Issues about the Ancient Saltmaking Techniques of Salt
  Industry Remains at Shuangwangcheng, Shouguang City, Shandong…………… (50)
Yu, Mengzhou, Researches on Chaotianzui Culture in the Three Gorges Region of the
  Western Hubei Province……………………………………………………………… (57)
Hu, Huiping, A Reexamination to the Issue of “Da Shi (Great Ancestors)” in the Oracle
  Inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty…………………………………………………… (71)
Tang, Jinqiong, The Funeral Customs and Nature of Tomb No. 60 in Locus East of
  Huayuanzhuang of Yinxu……………………………………………………………… (80)
Ma, Xiaoling, Summary of the 2009 Ningxia International Symposium on the Silk Road …………………………………………………………………………………… (91)
 
Excavation to the Remains of the Shang Dynasty of Liwu Site at Yangxin County, Shandong
KEYWORDS: Shandong Liwu Site Residence of Salt Workers Manufactory of Helmetshaped Pottery  Yinxu Period
ABSTRACT: In the summer of 2003, the joint archaeological fieldwork team organized by Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and other institutions conducted coring and excavation to Liwu Site at Yangxin County. Liwu Site comprised south and north settlement units, the north of which could be divided into three subunits. Each unit or subunit had its own houses, courtyards, cemeteries, working areas and daily refuse disposal areas, the usages of which lasted from Phase Ⅰ to Phase Ⅳ of Yinxu Period, implying that these units were stable production and consumption communities. The features of the pottery helmet-shaped vessels and the implements made of stone, bone and clamshells and the situations of the animal remains unearthed from this site all showed that Liwu Site was the dwelling area for the salt workers and their families in the seasons of summer, autumn and winter.
 
 
Excavation to the Salt Industry Remains at Shuangwangcheng, Shouguang City, Shandong in 2008
KEYWORDS: Shandong Shuangwangcheng Site Salt-producing Workshop Workflow of Salt Producing  Late Yinxu Period to Early Western Zhou Period
ABSTRACT: In 2008, the joint archaeological fieldwork team organized by Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and other institutions conducted excavations to three salt-making workshop remains (numbered 07, 014 and SS8) at Shuangwangcheng Site, Shouguang City. The excavations recovered intact salt-producing workshop units of the late Yinxu Period to the early Western Zhou Dynasty with clear structures and layouts: the brine wells, the salt hearths, hearth shelters and the working rooms attached to the salt hearths and the brine cisterns were arranged on the central axis which was the highest part of the site; the groups of settling ponds, evaporating ponds were arranged flanking them symmetrically.In addition, brine wells, salt hearths, brine channels and filtering ditches of the Song and Yuan Dynasties were also recovered.
 
 
The Salt Industry Remains of the Western Zhou Dynasty of Nanheya Site at Dongying City, Shandong
KEYWRODS: Shandong  Nanheya Site  Helmet-shaped Pottery   Salt-producing Workshop Western Zhou
ABSTRACT: From March to June 2008, the joint archaeological fieldwork team organized by Department of Archaeology, Shandong University and other institutions conducted excavation to Locus I of salt-producing workshop sites of the Western Zhou Dynasty at Nanheya, Dongying City. The recovered salt-producing workshop consisted of salt-water well, raw salt-condensing lot, salt hearth, salt-water adding pit, house foundations and hearths, and other remains related to salt-producing. The artifacts unearthed during this excavation were made of pottery, stone, bone and clamshell, among which pottery took the bulk. In addition, large amount of clamshells, conch shells and some animal bones were also found. The typological features of the artifacts showed that this salt-producing site was built and used around the Middle Western Zhou Dynasty. The excavation to Nanheya Site is academically valuable for the researches on the salt industry in the coastal regions of northern Shandong during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties.
 
 
On Some Issues about the Ancient Salt
KEYWRODS:ShuangwangchengSalt-producing Site  Salt-producing Technique    Calcareous and Magnesia Remains   X-ray diffraction   Stable Isotopes
ABSTRACT: The white calcareous remains excavated from the Shuangwangcheng salt-making site in Shouguang City are analyzed through XRD and stable isotopes (O/C/Sr) methods. The paper discussed some important issues related to salt production, including the source of the brine and the formative temperature of the salt. It is also indicted that the calcareous and magnesia remains appearing in the site are the most important chemical evidences to judge whether a site is related to salt producing. The results of the comprehensive analyses helped us to understand the workflows of the salt industry in ancient times, especially the Shang and Zhou Dynasties. In the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, the material for producing salt was brine drawn from the wells, which was simmered by gentle flame in helmet-shaped pottery wares, the evaporating temperature was about 60°C.In the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the material was also brine drawn from the wells, but the heating vessel was iron pans and the formative temperature of the salt could be as high as 100°C.
 
 
Researches on Chaotianzui Culture in the Three Gorges Region of the Western Hubei Province
KEYWRODS:ThreeGorgesArea in Western Hubei Province Chaotianzui Culture  
Distribution Area Chronology Cultural Element Analysis
ABSTRACT: Based on the systematic collections of the published data, this paper redefined Chaotianzui Culture as an independent archaeological culture distributed in the Three Gorges area in western Hubei Province. According to some analyses on the typical sites, this paper divided the Chaotianzui Culture into four phases, and discussed its temporal range as corresponding to Phase Ⅲ of Erlitou Culture through Phase Ⅱ of Yinxu Period. By the cultural element analysis, this paper concluded that the Chaotianzui Culture had been formed mainly on the basis of assimilating  the cultural  elements of  Sanxingdui Culture and the native cultures. At the same time, the Chaotianzui Culture also assimilated some elements from the cultures in the Yangtze and Han River Valleys, the eastern region of Chongqing Municipality and the Central Plains.
 
 
A Reexamination to the Issue of “Da Shi (Great Ancestors)” in the Oracle Inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty
KEYWRODS: Collective Names of Ancestors Sacrifices  Lineal Kin Collateral Kin Da Shi (Great Ancestors)
ABSTRACT: In the oracle inscriptions of the Shang Dynasty, collective names of many ancestors can be seen, each represents a distinct group of sacrifice accepters (ancestors). It is extremely important to identity the concrete meanings of these collective names. The identification of the connotation of Da Shi (Great Ancestors) is inspirational for us to detect the connotations of other collective names of ancestors. The results of the analyses to the oracle inscriptions about Da Shi and that of the researches done by the past scholars on the Da Shi issue showed that Da Shi means neither all of the lineal ancestors since King Shang Jia上甲 to the late father of the King who was making the divination, nor the six ancestors from King Shang Jia to King Shi Gui示癸 and Yuan Shi元示. “Zi Shang Jia Liu Da Shi自上甲六大示” was not equal to “Zi Shang Jia Liu Shi自上甲六示”, while “Zi Shang Jia自上甲” was not equal to Da Shi. The collective name “Da Shi” did not only include the lineal ancestors whose name initiated with the character Da (大, or Tai); “Liu Da Shi (the Six Great Ancestors)” was the collective name of the five royal ancestors whose names were initiated with the character Da大, which were Da Yi大乙, Da Ding大丁, Da Jia大甲, Da Geng大庚 and Da Wu大戊 plus Shang Jia. Moreover, King Zhong Ding中丁 seems to ought to be included into Da Shi; the Qi Da Shi (the Seven Great Ancestors) would have been the five royal ancestors whose names were initiated with the character Da plus Kings Shang Jia and Zhong Ding.
 
 
The Funeral Customs and Nature of Tomb No. 60 in Locus East of Huayuanzhuang of Yinxu
KEYWRODS: Yinxu  Tomb No. 60 in Locus East of Huayuanzhuang    Funeral Customs and Rites Sacrificial Pit
ABSTRACT: Through the comparative studies on the Shang Tomb No. 60 in Locus East of Huayuanzhuang and other burials of the same period, it is revealed that Tomb No. 60 differed from the tombs of the late Shang Dynasty on the processing of grave, burial furniture, burial system, burial method, bronze assemblage and pottery assemblage, and special burial method of paving the bottom of the grave with intentionally broken potteries. On the contrary, these features resembled the sacrificial pits of the same period in a large way. Therefore, Tomb No. 60 in Locus East of Huayuanzhuang would rather be a sacrificial pit than a tomb.
 
 
Summary of the 2009 Ningxia International Symposium on the Silk Road
KEYWRODS: Ningxia  Silk Road  International Symposium
ABSTRACT: To strengthen the academic interchanges and propel the researches on the Silk Road and the process of the nomination of Silk Road as a multinational project for World Heritage, the “2009 Ningxia International Symposium on the Silk Road” sponsored jointly by the Department of Culture of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Institutes of Archaeology and History, Chinese Academy of Social Science and other relevant institutions is held in Yinchuan City, Ningxia on 20 through 25 August 2009. The almost 100 experts and scholars attending this symposium discussed issues related to the Silk Road on wide fields including archaeology, history, anthropology, linguistics, religion, science and technology, and so on, and presented advices and suggestions to improve the researches on the Silk Road in the future.
 
 
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