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HomePublicationJournalsKaogu (Archaeology)
Kaogu 2010-1
From:Chinese Archaeology  Writer:  Date:2010-03-15


Main  Contents
Anyang Archaeological Team (AAT), Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences et al, Preliminary Report on the 2005-2007 Survey to the Shang Period Huanbei City Site in Anyang City, Henan………   (3)
AAT, IA, CASS, Excavation of Architecture Foundation No. 2 in the Palace Area of the Shang Period Huanbei City Site in Anyang City, Henan……… (9) 
Tang Jigen, Jing Zhichun and He Yuling, The Research on the Reconstruction of the House-foundations Nos. 1 and 2 in the Palace Area of the Shang Period Huanbei City Site…………………………………………………………   (23)
Oriental Archaeology Research Center of Shandong University, Hubei Provincial Bureau of Cultural Relics and Yunxian County Bureau of Cultural Relics, The Survey and Excavation to the Cliff Burials of the Tang Dynasty at Houfang Village, Yunxian County, Hubei………………… (36)
Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology et al, Liao Tomb No. 23 at Yemaotai, Faku County, Liaoning………………… (49)
Feng Shi, Studies on the Inscriptions on the Three Bronzes of Diaosheng…… …… …………………………………………………(69)
He Zhiguo, On the Relationship between Money Trees and Candelabras…… …… …………………………………………………(81)
Xu Feng, Review of Landscape and Power in Early China: The Crisis and Fall of the Western Zhou 1045-771 BC (by Li Feng) …… …… ……………(90)


Keywords: Huanbei City Site (Anyang City, Henan); Royal Palaces--Shang Dynasty--Planning
Abstract: This paper concisely reported the results of the surveys and trial excavations to the palace area and the discovery of the small city site at the southwestern corner of the Huanbei City Site of the Shang Dynasty at Anyang City, Henan Province. The palace area of Huanbei City Site was located in the south of the central axis of the outer city. The previously found large-scale rammed-earth architectural foundations, including Foundations nos. 1 and 2, were actually architectural foundations within the palace city. The construction procedure of the Huanbei City Site would have been building settlement first, then the palace (inner) city, finally the outer city.
 

Keywords: Excavations--Huanbei City Site (Anyang City, Henan); Royal Palaces
Abstract: Architecture Foundation No. 2 in the palace area of the Huanbei City Site and located to the north of Foundation No. 1 was an architectural complex in the shape of a quadrangle. The main hall of the complex is estimated to have façade consisting of four bays with porches along the front and rear eaves and steps before the front door. The main hall has small annexes on east and west sides and the west annex has doorway in the middle. The courtyard is enclosed by corridors on east, south and west sides, all of which are wattle-and-daub structures with shed roofs sloping to the inner side of the courtyard. A doorway is opened through the middle of the south corridor. In a subsidiary foundation near the south end of the west corridor, a well is found, the potshards unearthed from which are essential for the dating of the whole Architecture Foundation No. 2. The excavation to this architectural site is important for us to understand the nature and date of the Huanbei City Site of the Shang Dynasty.
 
Keywords: Huanbei City Site (Anyang City, Henan); Royal Palaces--Restoration Designs
Abstract: Based on the status seen in the excavation and the relevant artifacts unearthed, this paper tries to make a preliminary restoration to the architectural foundations nos. 1 and 2 in the palace area of the Huanbei City Site of the Shang Dynasty. The restoration research shows that foundation site no. 1 was a large-scale quadrangle with east and west wings, the main hall of which had ten bays in the façade and porch with colonnade, and small annexes on both sides; the south side of the quadrangle was a roofed corridor in the middle of which a doorway with guardhouse was opened. Foundation site no. 2 was also a quadrangle but the detailed designing was slightly different: the main hall had four bays on the façade and was surrounded by porches on all sides, and had small annexes on east and west sides, but it did not have wings instead of which roofed corridors were built on east, south and west sides. Both architectural complexes were designed as “isolated outward and opening inward” arrangements. This paper also makes inferences on the thickness and building methods of the wattle-and-daub walls.
 
Keywords: Cliff Burials--Tang Dynasty; Tombs--Yunxian County (Hubei Province); Funeral Customs and Rites --Tang Dynasty
Abstract: In the year 2006, some cliff burials of the Tang Dynasty were found along the banks of Han River 5 km from Qianfang Site at Yunxian County, Hubei Province in our investigations. The situation shows that these cliff burials were arranged in groups distributed in several loci. We selected some typical ones from Loci Hou Fangkou, Houzitou and Liuwan and excavated. All of these cliff burials were cut out of steep cliffs, a complete case of which consisted of terrace, passage, entrance, side-chambers, corridor and tomb chamber, and so on. The grave goods found in these tombs were bronze mirrors, bronze ornaments, porcelain pots with dish-shaped rim, porcelain ink stone, and so on. The cliff burials at Locus Houfangkou, which are dated in the early Tang Dynasty, are preserved in good condition and yielded intact grave goods assemblages. The cliff burials at Locus Houzitou were formed at the same time to those at Houfangkou; the cliff burials at Locus Liuwan slightly differed from the ones at the two former loci, but the dates of Locus Liuwan could not be too far away from the former two. The discovery of these cliff burials provides valuable materials for the researches on the burial customs, social statuses and spiritual believing of this area during the Tang Dynasty.
 
Keywords: Tombs--Liao Dynasty--Yemaotai (Faku County, Liaoning); Khitan (Chinese people) --Social Life and Customs
Abstract: In October 2004, Liaoning Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Shenyang Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology conducted a rescue excavation to a looted Liao tomb on the hillside of Xi Laohuwo at Faku County, Liaoning Province. This tomb (numbered Tomb No. 23) located in the middle of the Yemaotai Cemetery was a multi-chambered tomb built of bricks and stone blocks, consisting of passage, vertical shafts, entrance, corridor, left and right side-chambers, fore chamber and main chamber. Among the unearthed grave goods, more than 80 were porcelains, only three were potteries; the rest were made of gold, silver, bronze, iron, bone, stone, jade, agate, amber and so on. Fragments of epitaph inscribed with Khitan minor script were also found. The occupant of this tomb was a middle-aged female; because the Yemaotai Cemetery was recognized as an important clan cemetery of Xiao Family, which was the imperial maternal clan of the Liao Dynasty, this tomb occupant was estimated as a member of this family, and her ethnic attribute would be Khitan. The date of this tomb would be the later period of the Liao Dynasty.
 
Keywords: Bronze Inscriptions--Western Zhou Dynasty; Rites and Ceremonies--History; Patriarchal Clan System
Abstract: Based on the ritual background of Xiang Yinjiu Li乡饮酒礼 (District Symposium), this paper re-examined the inscriptions of the bronze Gui簋-vessels of Diaosheng (the owner’s name marked in the inscriptions) with dates of “the fifth year” and “the sixth year” discovered in the past, and that of bronze Xi䖒-vessel with date of “the fifth year” recently unearthed at Wujunxi Village, Fufeng County Shaanxi Province, and revealed the connotation of the inscriptions and the patriarchal rules, ritual systems and social life and customs of the Western Zhou Dynasty reflected by these inscriptions. Meanwhile, this paper dated these three bronzes in the reign of King Li of the Western Zhou Dynasty with the references to the historic literature. What to be emphasized is that the contents of the bronze inscriptions well matched that of the chapter Xiang Yinjiu Li (District Symposium) in Yili仪礼 (Book of Etiquettes and Ceremonial), which proved that Yili has reliable sources from ancient times. The inscription of the bronze Xi䖒-vessel with date of “the fifth year”, which mentioned its own name as Xi, presented us a new type of bronzes.
 
Keywords: Money Trees (bronze artifacts); Candelabras (bronze artifacts); Comparative Studies--Archaeology--Han and Three-Kingdoms Periods (206 BCE--280 CE)
Abstract: Both Money Trees and Candelabras are bronze artifacts designed as vertical forms, the difference between which is that candelabras must have lamps attached to the branches and money trees must have coins (with square perforation in the center) attached. The decorative motifs shared by both are immortals, dragons, bears, monkeys and so on, and Xiwangmu (Queen Mother of the West) was a deity emerging only on money trees. The phenomenon of the coexistence of these two bronze objects could only be seen in the peripheral areas of Sichuan Basin. Candelabras are practical lighting equipment while money trees are exclusively made as grave goods. Money trees bore the connotations of pursuit of fortune, longevity, harvesting and productiveness. The origination and connotation of candelabra are related to the “Mongzhu (Bright Candel)” for paying sacrifices in the ancient times. Money trees are mainly distributed in the southwestern area with Sichuan as the central region during the Han Dynasty to the Three-Kingdoms Period and candelabras are widely distributed in the Central Plains and other areas during the Warring-States Period to the Han Dynasty.
 

Keywords: The Fall of the Western Zhou (Book Title); System Theory; Landscape; Bronze Inscriptions; Archaeology
Abstract: In the discussion of the fall of Western Zhou, there are two noteworthy aspects: firstly, this book drew in the concept of “process”, making a long-term survey of the development of the Western Zhou, instead of traditional historiography being limited to the political events; secondly, this book interprets the political crisis of the Western Zhou from two sides. Inside, this book was guided by Joseph A. Tainter’s model on the collapse of complex societies, and it tried to make a concrete practice of the Western Zhou’s society. Outside, the book reconstructed the historical geography between Zhou and its enemies from Northwest. Meanwhile, the impact of Huaiyi from Southeast on Western Zhou was not explored completely, due to the lack of materials. Besides, this book take the concept “landscape” as the bridge between history and geography, explaining the complex relationship between power, geography and archaeological culture. At last, the comparison between bronze inscription, historical texts, and archaeological materials is worthy noted.

 
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