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HomePublicationJournalsKaogu (Archaeology)
Kaogu 2005-3
From:  Writer:  Date:2005-04-30

KAOGU
(Archaeology)
No. 3, 2005

Main Contents

First Henan Archaeological Team, IA CASS, A Surprisingly Large House of the
Middle Yangshao Period Discovered on the Xipo Site In Lingbao, Henan…………..(3)
Inner Mongolian Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, and Aohan Banner Museum, Inner
Mongolian Autonomous Region, Survey of Neolithic Sites in the Banghe River and
Laohushan River Valleys in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia ----------------------------------( 7)
Heilongjiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Archaeology
Department of Jilin University, Excavation on the Xingnong City-site of the Bohai Period
in Hailin City, Heilongjiang ------------------------------------------------------------------------( 21)
Archaeological Institute of Ancient Zhenjiang City, Ancient Tile-ends Unearthed from
Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu ------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 36)
Han-Wei Luoyang City Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, Excavation of the No. 1 Tang
Kiln-site at the White-horse Temple in Luoyang City, Henan----------------------------------(45)
Han Jianye, Some Problems of the Zhukaigou Site in Inner Mongolia ----------------------------(55)
Liu Jianguo and Pan Meiyun, On Tile-ends in the Six Dynasties Period ------------------------(65)
Patrick E.MacGovern et al., A Chemical Analysis of the Longshan Culture Fermented
    Beverage Unearthed from the Liangchengzhen Site in Rizhao City, Shandong: Also on the
Cultural Significance of Fermented Beverages in Prehistoric Times --------------------------(73)
Liu Wensuo, Dr. Li Ji and His Influence on Modern Chinese Academic Thoughts --------------(86)

 

Abstract
Inner Mongolian Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, and Aohan Banner Museum, Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region, Survey of Neolithic Sites in the Banghe River and Laohushan River Valleys in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia

KEY WORDS: Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia    Xinglongwa culture    Zhaobaogou
              culture    Xiaoheyan culture    Neolithic Age
ABSTRACT: In 2001, a full-coverage field survey was carried out to explore sites of the Xinglongwa, Zhaobaogou, Hongshan and Xiaoheyan cultures in the lower Banghe River and the upper Laohushan River valleys in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia. The aim of the project was, in the perspective of settlement archaeology, to inquire into the development of the then society towards complexity in the two valleys. The data from the lower Banghe River valley show a sharp increase of settlements both in size and in number in the middle Hongshan period. Twenty-three Hongshan sites with a total area of 75.4 ha were found. Moreover, their variety in grade suggests considerable social complexity. In the upper Laohushan River valley, almost no residential sites were recorded except for seven sacrificial sites. This, following the discovery of the Niuheliang sacrificial complex, again demonstrates the existence of exclusive sacred places separated from everyday secular life.

Heilongjiang Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Archaeology Department of Jilin University, Excavation on the Xingnong City-site of the Bohai Period in Hailin City, Heilongjiang

KEY WORDS: Heilongjiang     Xingnong city-site     city walls     moat    Bohai
              period
ABSTRACT: In 1994 to 1995, Drilling and excavation were carried out at Xingnong in Hailin City, Heilongjiang. The work covered a total area of about 700 sq m and discovered a Bohai period city-site irregularly square in plan and some 642 m in circumference. Roughly in the middle of the southern city wall, a city gate was found to be distinctly of Tang-style structure. The city walls are built of rammed earth and surrounded by a moat. The cultural remains revealed within the city belong to the Han period of the early Iron Age and to the Bohai period respectively. The city was constructed and existed roughly in middle and late Bohai times. Judging from its location and shape, it must have been a medium- or small-sized plain-style city functioning mainly for the defense of communication lines in the northern Bohai State.


Archaeological Institute of Ancient Zhenjiang City, Ancient Tile-ends Unearthed from
Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu

KEY WORDS: Jiangsu    Zhenjiang    tile-ends    Three Kingdoms to Tang-Song
              period
ABSTRACT: Nearly one hundred tile-ends mainly of the Three Kingdoms to the Tang-Song periods were unearthed from Zhenjiang City in the 1990s. In decoration, they fall into four types, which bear cloud, animal-mask, lotus-flower and animal designs respectively. The former two types are seen in the late Han and Three Kingdoms period. In the Eastern Jin to the Tang periods, lotus-flower and animal-mask pattern tile-ends became the main varieties, and the relevant finds show clearly their evolutionary lines. The Song period seems to have had no tile-ends with lotus-flower pattern; it left over numbers of tile-ends with simplified animal-mask and animal designs. Among the tile-ends from Zhenjiang the richest and most typical are those from the Iron Barbican-entrance of the Six Dynasties period, which provided important material data for studying the history and evolution of the city.  


Han-Wei Luoyang City Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, Excavation of the No. 1 Tang Kiln-site at the White-horse Temple in Luoyang City, Henan

KEY WORDS: Luoyang, Henan    Han-Wei Luoyang City    White-horse Temple   
              Tang period    kiln-site
ABSTRACT: In 1998, a kiln-site was discovered east of the enclosure of the White-horse Temple in Luoyang. It consists of four kilns sharing a common operating pit, of which one is for firing pottery, and the rest are for producing bricks and tiles. This is the only example discovered so far that represents ancient grouped kilns yielding products of different use. It was built in the Full Tang period and abandoned in the late Tang, and must have been a governmental workshop related with the enlargement of the White-horse Temple by Wu Zetian’s order. The unearthed artifacts include structural members belonging to the brick and tile category, porcelain, tricolor ware, pottery, and stone implements. Of them a blue-and-white bowl shows distinctly the Western Asian style and has important value to dating the emergence of this ware in ancient China.


Han Jianye, Some Problems of the Zhukaigou Site in Inner Mongolia

KEY WORDS: Inner Mongolia    Zhukaigou site    Bronze Age   
              cultural periodization    cultural pedigree   
ABSTRACT: The Zhukaigou site is located in Ejin Horo Banner, of Inner Mongolia, on a loess highland in the eastern Ordos Plateau. It occupies an area of about 500,000 sq m. From 1977 to 1984, the Inner Mongolian Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology carried out here excavation and revealed 83 houses, 329 burials, together with a wealth of pottery, stone and bronze artifacts. The remains of the site belongs to the early Bronze Age and fall into three phases dated to ca. 1900-1300 BC. Meanwhile, they show a strong commonness and can be assigned to the Zhukaigou culture.


Liu Jianguo and Pan Meiyun, On Tile-ends in the Six Dynasties Period

KEY WORDS: Six Dynasties period     tile-ends     periodization
ABSTRACT: After the Han Dynasty, tile-end decorating art passed through a great change, especially in South China during the Six Dynasties period. In this phase, tile-ends were decorated with three major motifs: the cloud, animal-mask and animal designs. The first type of tile-end shows a close relationship with cultures in the Central Plains, while the second and third types exhibit chiefly elements of the South China style and character. Based on available archaeological data, the present paper divided them into four stages, and studies their relationship with their counterparts in the Central Plains of the Wei, Jin and Northern Dynasties period. It comes to the conclusion that, as the forerunners of the tile-ends with animal-mask and lotus-flower designs, they exerted a profound influence upon tile-end decorating art in the Sui, Tang and still later periods.


Chen Bingxin, Restudy of the Inscription on the Zitang Ding Tripod Unearthed from Anhui

KEY WORDS: Anhui    Zitang ding tripod    huo cauldron    Spring-and-Autumn
              period                       
ABSTRACT: In 1986, a bronze vessel was unearthed from Jiuligou Village north of Liu’an City proper in Anhui Province. The 12-character inscription on the shoulder has been identified in many theses, still some key problems call for further study. The present paper makes an analysis of its researchers’ opinions. The author believes that Hu Renyi’s views are more reasonable as he takes the vessel to have been related to Zidang (i.e. Zitang), a Chu State senior official of the Spring-and-Autumn period. This tripod bears the vessel name huo cauldron, which is seldom seen in the same type of object. The shape, use and evolution of such vessels call for further study.


Patrick E.MacGovern et al., A Chemical Analysis of the Longshan Culture Fermented Beverage Unearthed from the Liangchengzhen Site in Rizhao City, Shandong: Also on the Cultural Significance of Fermented Beverages in Prehistoric Times

KEY WORDS: Shandong     Liangchengzhen site     Longshan culture  
              fermented beverage     chemical analysis
ABSTRACT: Humans around the world have shown a remarkable propensity to ferment available sugar sources into alcoholic beverages. These drinks have significantly contributed to cultural innovation and development, including agricultural and horticultural skills to harness natural resources, technologies to produce beverages and to make special vessels to serve, drink and present them ceremonially, and their incorporation into feasting and other activities. Molecular archaeological analyses of a range of pottery forms from the Liangchengzhen site, China, illustrate how contemporaneous chemical data, in conjunction with intensive archaeological and botanical recovery methods, enable the reconstruction of prehistoric beverages and their cultural significance. During the middle Longshan period (ca. 2400-2200 BC), a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey and fruit (probably hawthorn fruit or grape) was presented as grave offerings and consumed by residents in the regional center.


 Liu Wensuo, Dr. Li Ji and His Influence on Modern Chinese Academic Thoughts

KEY WORDS: Li Ji    archaeology    anthropology    history of academic thoughts
ABSTRACT: Dr. Li Ji (1896-1979), whose academic activities were closely connected with the history of modern Chinese academic thoughts, is regarded as the “father of Chinese archaeology” and the first anthropologist in modern China.” The present paper reviews his major academic works and analyzes the evolutionary line of his academic thoughts. The author believes that Li’s research approach of integrating archaeology, history and anthropology in academic studies represents an everlasting orientation of humanities, which is especially worthy of careful consideration today.

 
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