Key words: Shanxi; Yaozipo; Miaodigou - II Culture; Longshan Period; excavation
Abstract: The Yaozipo Site in Kelan County, Shanxi Province was discovered in the work for the preservation of ancient monuments along the Shanxi Xinzhou to Baode Expressway. Soon the Shanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, the Xinzhou Municipal Office for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments and the Kelan County Office for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments sent out a joint archaeological team, which excavated a batch of ancient cultural remains. The main vestiges are house - foundations, ash - pits and tombs belonging to the Miaodigou - II Culture and the Longshan, Warring States and Yuan periods. The discovery provided valuable material data for researching the ancient cultural aspect of northwestern Shanxi.
Key words: Qixia City; earthen -pit tomb; early celadon; Han Period
Abstract: In the spring of 1993 , the Shandong Qixia Municipal Office for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments revealed a rectangular earthen - pit tomb at Guanli Village through a salvage excavation. Although it was robbed in early years, the tomb still yielded nine celadon, pottery, lacquered and wooden utensils, as well as 70 wuzhu coins. Among them the celadon pots are the first discovery of this ware on the Jiaodong Peninsula and provide important data for researching into the making technology and circulation of early Chinese celadon. Judged by the distinctive features of the unearthed objects, the tomb must be dated no later than the early Eastern Han Period.
Key words: Chongqing; Wanzhou District; Longmenhao Cemetery; archaeological excavation
Abstract: The present paper reports 2005 - year archaeological excavation in the Longmenhao Cemetery within the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The excavated remains are chiefly six earthen - pit and brick - chambered tombs going back to the time from the Warring States Period to the Southern Dynasties Period. They yielded 29 cultural relics, mainly pottery and porcelain. The excavation gained a batch of important material data for research on the then archaeological culture in the Yangtze River valley.
Key words: Weihui City; Dasima Cemetery; Song Period tombs; excavation
Abstract: The Dasima Cemetery lies to the north of Dasima Village of Tangzhuang Town in Weihui City, Henan Province. In 2006, the Archaeology Department of Sichuan University and other institutions excavated there three Song Period tombs. These graves have not been damaged by robbery and yielded mainly porcelain and coins, which furnished new data to the study of the burial institution of the Song Period in the Henan region.
Key words: Huaxia Civilization; Yellow River valley; formation
Abstract: By the Longshan Culture Period, bronzes, writing and castles, the elements of finished civilization recognized in academic circles, had arisen in the whole Yellow River valley. Comparative study of the civilizing process in the Yellow River valley with that in the Yangtze River valley of South China suggests that the process in the former region is earlier than that in the latter region. This chronological disparity is much concerned with their geographic and climatic environments. North China featured clear division of the four seasons, and people were easier to be organized in strict communities in the course of joint labor and struggle with severe nature. But the Yangtze River valley of the Longshan Period, like the Region South of the Five Ridges in later times, was not among the best inhabiting districts for ancient populations. Meanwhile, as subsistence was easier in the southern Yangtze River valley, people lived in looser groups, the formation of large communities took place later, and the civilizing process was slower than that in North China.
Key words: Shijiahe Culture; pottery sculpture; sacrifice
Abstract; A large number of small - sized pottery sculptures have been discovered in the Shijiahe Culture, which is a phenomenon seldom seen in other archaeological cultures. The Shijiahe statuettes represent various animal species and human appearances and provide valuable data for researching the features of early works of art as well as people' s material and spiritual life. Based on the data from the Dengjiawan Site yielding pottery works of art and possessing features of primitive religion, the present paper discusses the factors causing the rise and development of this type of work of primitiive art and its function in prehistoric religious activities. In addition, the author inquires into the changes of ecologic and climatic environments across the ancient and modern Yangtze River and Han-jiang River valleys in the light of discovery of pottery elephants and tapirs.
Key words: pig bones buried; meanings; the opinion concerning meat offering
Abstract: This paper mainly demonstrates an opinion that pig bones buried in prehistory burials mean meat offered to the dead, and
argues other opinions about pig bones buried. The author insists that the former opinion is more reasonable.
Key words: Liangzhu Culture; Wangwan III Culture; Erlitou Culture; Xia Culture; the Bronze Jue; the pottery Gui tripod
Abstract: The Bronze Jue was an important ritual ware in Xia and Shang dynasty, and also has a particular significance for the research on China early civilization. The author of this text has had an idea that the Bronze Jue was a new variety derived from the Pottery Gui Tripod of Liangzhu Culture when it transmitted to the area of Henan, and therefore brought up an opinion that the Xia Culture may originate from the Liangzhu Culture. This text? according to the new information, confirms that the pottery Gui tripod of Liangzhu Culture had two kinds for their size, and the Bronze Jue just originated from the small size. It is a more effective evidence that the Xia dynasty originated from the Liangzhu Culture.
Key words: Xia Culture; early Shang Culture; Erlitou Culture; Central Plains Longshan Culture; serial 14C dates
Abstract: The Xia and Shang cultures are demarcated between the 3rd and 4th phases of the Erlitou Culture, at 1553 or 1572 BC in absolute date. Tracing back for 471 years, the Xia Dynasty must have begun in 2024 or 2043 BC. This means that the early phase of Xia Culture must be identified as the remains of the late Central Plains Longshan Culture; the middle phase, as those of " Xinzhai Period" Culture and Erlitou Culture I; and the late phase, as those of Erlitou Culture Ⅱ and Ⅲ. For a long period of time, the Xia Culture was defined as "the culture of the Xia people in the Xia Dynasty Period," which actually aroused a lot of puzzles. Therefore the present paper puts forward and argues the new concept that " the Xia Culture should be defined as ' the culture of the Xiahou Clan (royal Xia Clan) in the Xia Dynasty Period.
Key words: Luoyang; Han to Tang periods; iron mirrors
Abstract: More than one hundred of Han to Tang periods iron mirrors have been unearthed from ancient tombs in Luoyang. Exterior examination and X - ray photography revealed them to be roughly the same as contemporary bronze mirrors in shape and decoration. As iron cultural relics are easy to become rust - eaten, it is especially important to conserve them in time. One of the simple and effective methods is airtight sealing with paraffin wax.
Key words: Nanjing Municipal Museum; gold -inlaid jade objects; types of jewelry; making techniques
Abstract: The gold -inlaid jade cultural relics collected in the Nanjing Municipal Museum are as great in number as 64 pieces/ sets. Based on his own analysis the author comes to the conclusion that the types of jewelry and making techniques for these objects reflect hierarchic division in the ancient Chinese bureaucracy from the Eastern Jin to the Ming periods.
Keywords: Luoyang; Sui Period; epitaphs; three pieces
Abstract: Luoyang is an important preservation and collection area of medieval epitaphs. It has by now drawn extensive attention from academic and antiquarian circles for the discovery and dispersion of new finds. With the successful compilation and effective publication of the book Collection and Study of Sui Period Epitaphs, this type of cultural relic of Sui times aroused still greater concern. The present article also collects and identifies three Sui epitaphs from Luoyang that were beyond study previously, i. e. the Epitaph of ? Zi-jian of the 8th year , Kaihuang Reign, the Epitaph of Zhao Luo of the 9th year, Kaihuang Reign, and the Epitaph of Wang Jie of the 15th year, Kaihuang Reign. The third piece is studied with two counterfeits discerned in this paper.
Key words: Dunhuang; late Tang Period; the Ten Gods of Earth; Mogao Grottoes
Abstract: The Ten Gods of Earth began to be popularly worshiped among the common people from the Tang - Song period. Their figures may have been finalized roughly in the later Tang Period. The present paper describes pictures Ten Gods of Earth made in Dunhuang in the late Tang Period, especially the one recently discovered in the 8th Mogao grotto. The author believes these pictures to have important value to studying the early history of the spread of this worship.
Key words: Yao Guangxiao; Ming Dynasty Yan Prince Zhu Di' s suppression of other princes' disturbance and his ascension to the imperial throne; 1st year of Xuande Reign; Yao Ji; Suzhou
Abstract: Two Yao Guangxiao steles were recently discovered in the former Miaozhi Nunnery in Suzhou. Although the primary data of the four engraved articles on Yao' s deeds are recorded in previously known literal material, it is the first time that relevant stele documents have been discovered archaeologically. It is very possible that the steles were both engraved by his son Yao Ji around the 1st year of Xuande Reign, early Ming Dynasty. The finds have particular value in archaeological and historical studies.
Key words: oracle tortoise shells and Bones excavated in the locus East of Huayuanzhuang; development of Chinese character 后; different development? of one origin.
Abstract: When we explained the word "亡后" of the fifth and the sixth sentence on the 103 shell from Oracle tortoise shells and Bones excavated in the locus East of Huayuanzhuang, we talked about the development of 后' s character, pronunciation and meaning. We recognized that 后 and 司 came from the same origin, the latter one appeared more lately than the former, and its pronunciation are about tooth. We should change the old explanation of 司 to "后" , use it as "後" .
Key words: Chinese archaeology; historiography; historicism
Abstract: Chinese archaeology possesses distinct historiographic character, which is manifested in two aspects: Firstly, its researches take literal records as their clues and archaeology as factual evidence, showing the tendency of historical positivism. Secondly, its high - level interpreting theories are constructed with the help of historiographic studies. These features arose early in the birth of Chinese archaeology and have been developed up to the present, forming a striking historical tradition, and at the same time determining the main tasks and basic position of Chinese archaeological researches. To get a clear understanding of this character and tradition is of great significance to the future construction of Chinese archaeology at the global angle of view.
Key words: ecosystem theory; reflection; Elizabeth M. Brumfiel
Abstract： Many western archaeologists have made a deep reflection on ecosystem theory since the 1970s. E. M. Brumfiel's Distinguished Lecture in Archaeology; Breaking and Entering the Ecosystem—Gender, Class, and Faction Steal the Show presents a refined analysis of ecosystem theory, in which she underlines the study of social actors. Nowadays, the study of social actors is in full blossom relating to the research of China's prehistoric archaeology. E. M. Brumfiel's views are of full use for reference in this kind of study.