From October 2016 to January 2017, Chongqing Cultural Heritage Research Institute conducted the archaeological excavation in Handong City Site, covering an area of 1375 square meters. These remains mainly represent residential center dating back to Song Dynasty, which included 10 housing remains, 3 sets of pond, 90 ash pits, 11 ash ditches, 1 road remain, 40 post holes, as well as over 1400 pieces of potteries, porcelains, stone tools, bronze wares, iron wares and bone tools. Moreover, an earthen shaft pit tomb and 2 urn burials dating back to Han Dynasty and a few remains of Ming and Qing Dynasties were discovered in Handong City Site. The site was located in Handong Village, Zhutuo Town, Yongchuan District, Chongqing, which should be Wanshou Town during Tang Dynasty, Five Dynasties, early Song Dynasty, and it should also be the Handong Town and Handong Water Post Station during Song and Yuan dynasties according to the documents’ record and previous archaeological excavation.
The aerial photo which showed part of the excavation area
The walls were severely damaged, which could be classified into stone-piled wall base and post-hole style house. F17, the example of stone piled wall base, it was built up by neat stone bars, which was 1.2 m in length, 0.2 m in width, only 1 to 2 layers remained, and the east and north part were well preserved. The house remains presented in rectangle, with three rooms in width and two in depth. F15, the example of post-hole style house, only 4 post-holes and trampled surface in the middle were found. Many crucibles related to metal processing were found around the house remains, the earth on the tramped surface was similar to that which is filled in the crucibles, which could be the metal processing workshop.
House Remain F17
The pond was made by water storage pit and drainage trench, which was connected by holes. G18 was in rectangle shape, laid from east to west with curve, the damage opening was 1.8 m in length, 0.4m in width, and the trench filled with a few joint cylindrical red pottery drain-pipes with corrugated pattern. The single drain-pipe was 0.28 to 0.30 m in length, 0.12 m in diameter, and 0.01 m in thickness.
The pond（Song Dynasty）
The road remain (L2) was located in the middle of the site as part of the road from south to north. L2 presented as long stripe, from south to north, paved by processed slate staggered joint crosswise, the south part was preserved better, while the north part was bad with earth based under the stone slab. The unearthed part was damaged, 7 m in length, 1.9 to 5.26 m in width.
Wide flared mouth bowl（left）
High ring foot bowl（right）
The unearthed artifacts were mainly porcelains belonged to Song Dynasty, that was made from the Qiong kiln and Tushan kiln. The shapes were misty-blue stem bowl and flower-mouth bowl, brown glazed plate shaped lamp and flower-mouth cup, etc.
This archaeological excavation further confirmed the Song Dynasty’s urban distribution and function of Handong City Site. Meanwhile the discovery of crucibles related with metal processing and workshop had significant meaning for exploring urban metal processing method and technological level of Song Dynasty. (Translator: Lang Langtian)