From July to October, 2014, excavation of Xinle site, a Neolithic settlement locating in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, Northeast China, has been carried out by Shenyang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, covering an area of 200 square meters. 3 house foundations and 1 pit from the Lower Xinle Neolithic Culture as well as 1 dwelling, 4 ash pits and 1 ditch from the Upper Xinle Culture are discovered in this season.
over view of the excavation area
3 houses foundations from the Lower Xinle Culture (4800-5300B.C.) are all small semi-subterranean architectures with an area of roughly 10 square meters. No doorways appeared. F1, partially destroyed, probably has a rectangular plane with rounded corners, 3.3m left from east to west, 3-3.6m residue from south to north and 0.5m high residue. There is a hearth in slightly south part of the house’s center. 5 post holes are found in the walls of the semi-subterranean house.
Considerable sand-tempered pottery shards, stone artifacts as well as black amber artifacts and etc. are discovered in the fillings, including pottery with recognized types (basket-shaped jars and bo-bowls with high feet), grinding stones, stone blades and black amber balls and so on. Several basket-shaped jars and bo-bowls with high feet as well as some stone artifacts are remained on the floor.
the house foundation F1
F3 is a relatively complete and semi-subterranean house with a plane of roughly round-cornered trapezoid, 3.1m long from east to west, 2.6-3.4m wide from south to north and 0.3-0.4m high residue. In slightly west of its middle part, there is a hearth in almost round plane. And 6 post holes are found in the walls of semi-subterranean house. Relatively plenty of stone artifacts, a few sand-tempered pottery shards and black amber artifacts are uncovered from the house, ranging from basket-shaped jars, black amber balls, grinding stones as well as spindle whorls and so on.
House foundation F3
F4, a dwelling from the Upper Xinle Culture (1000B.C.), is unearthed partially. However, it’s predicted to be a roughly oval in plane and semi-subterranean house, 3.6m south-north, 1.7m east-west and 0.5m high residue. There is a doorway in the northern part of the house. In the middle of it, there is a burnt surface on the floor, measuring about 0.75m long. 2 post holes are discovered in the walls of semi-subterranean housed. Besides, lots of sand-tempered pottery shards, a small scale of stone artifacts and so on are recovered from F4, such as pots, bo-bowls, jars, stone knives, stone arrowheads and etc.
excavated ditch oriented from north to south
G1, a ditch oriented from northeast to southwest, 3.5m wide in the upper part, 0.6m wide in the lower part and 1.3m high residue. Plenty of sand-tempered pottery shards, a few stone artifacts and so on are found from the ditch, including li-vessels, ding-tripod, hu-pots, bowls, stone knives, grinding stones and etc..
unearthed net-sinking stone
unearthed black amber ball
3 houses from the Lower Xinle Culture supplement information of settlement pattern of Xinle Neolithic site. What’s more, the first discovery of houses from the Upper Xinle Culture enhances the contents of remains from Upper Xinle Culture. All these together provide new materials for the following archaeological report of Xinle site. (Translator: Ma Huanhuan)